6 Best Bitcoin Mining Hardware ASICs Comparison In 2017
Forbes miner's union plan, let you make it clear
https://preview.redd.it/51dwnbfy30451.png?width=900&format=png&auto=webp&s=79b57b192df4f4f11f0c7eb6ae849b169891f37c Learn from famous teachers: Dao organization comes from Cosmos, poca and other well-known open source projects as well as a number of Wall Street financial practitioners Grounded Technology: the core research direction of blockchain developers "cross chain" Looking at finance: building distributed financial infrastructure Layout of mining industry: "mining machine, mine field and mine pool", and strive to build a trinity of mining giant whale in 2020 In 2020, Forbes, the most concerned blockchain 4.0 project, is about to launch its global mining plan: Forbes has released its own ASIC chip bitcoin miner, and GFS hard disk miner is under development. At the same time, Forbes deployed mines in various regions of the world, including China, Southeast Asia, the United States, Australia, Russia and other places, to protect the "consensus". Forbes receives f2pool Based on the deployment of mining machines and mines in 2020, the Forbes plan will be launched with the strong support of internationally renowned mining pools. It is expected to build into the world's largest, most open and transparent comprehensive mine pool within three years. Miner and quarry Blockchain is revolutionary. It allows anyone to own and transfer assets through an open financial network without a trusted third party. There are now thousands of blockchain based assets, and the main way to produce encrypted assets is mining. "Mining", i.e. encrypted assets, represents the wealth anchored by the blockchain system, "mining" is the most direct means for all the network to obtain wealth. When the miner obtains the right to pack the blocks according to the consensus rules based on cryptography, and packages all the transactions correctly, the mining behavior can obtain the reward (token) given by the blockchain system for its honest record of the blocks, and when the blockchain system gains value promotion due to the growth and development of the participants, the token obtained by the miner will also be given higher and higher The secondary market value of. The miners produced the initial system pass. Therefore, mining industry has become the most upstream of blockchain industry. It can be said that mining industry is the foundation of the whole blockchain industry, which determines the 0 or 1 of a blockchain system. The mining equipment we use is the miner. https://preview.redd.it/jvfi6mfg40451.png?width=780&format=png&auto=webp&s=19dad192911d4a9addc1d285c7db5491c75904b0 The miner is essentially a computer. Personal computer is generally composed of CPU, GPU, memory, hard disk, motherboard and other devices. Mineral machinery is no exception in nature. Any mineral machinery is composed of motherboard + hard disk + mining chip. However, due to different mining machines for different algorithms of digital assets, such as GPU (or ASIC) for BTC, ETH mining, CPU for Monroe money mining, hard disk for IPFs, Bhd and other projects mining. Forbes mining machine in the main board, hard disk, mining chip innovation, Forbes uses dpoc consensus algorithm, belongs to the hard disk mining branch. Forbes with the strongest computing power is also in the field of the Internet of things. In foreign countries, everything is connected, hundreds of millions of intelligent devices are connected with each other, and they have super computing power and stability. Forbes mining machines all over the world will be very suitable for the deployment of Internet of things protocol, and become an important component of blockchain + Internet of things. The mine site is the offline site for the deployment and maintenance of mining machines. But for ordinary investors who want to enter the market, mining is difficult because the mining threshold is too high. Personal users want to mine, there is a huge deployment threshold and technical threshold. First of all, individuals can not get excellent electricity price, high temperature and high noise environment makes it impossible for users to mine at home. In addition, mining needs to be configured and deployed, and expensive mining machines need to be maintained regularly. Musk said that Tesla is not selling cars, but workshops. Standardization is necessary for an industry to achieve success. In the early miner Alliance Plan, Forbes launched its own BTC ASIC chip and bitcoin miner. At the same time, combined with major capitals, it created a global standardized Forbes mine, which was deployed and maintained in a unified way, greatly extending the service life of Forbes miner. According to the simulation test, Forbes I miner can operate stably for more than six years, which greatly reduces the mining cost and enables investors to obtain higher profits. Later, Forbes will log in to the Forbes hard disk miner in the ore pool after the main network goes online. Forbes miners Alliance Program Miner Alliance Plan: during a period of time when Forbes main network goes online, users can use collateral parallel chain assets (such as usdt, BTC, etc.) to lease computing power to deploy mining machines in global mines. In the lease term, the deposit is returned by the smart contract according to the number of days, and the mining revenue is obtained by the early participating nodes. Due to the cross chain implementation of Forbes, a large number of nodes need to be deployed in the early days to complete the information interaction between the relay chain and the parallel chain. And with the scale of ore pool access, the marginal cost of new mining machines will be lower and lower, and the revenue will grow steadily. Therefore, Forbes started the plan of Forbes miners' alliance, realized the rapid scale of the mining pool with market funds, and realized the stable growth of mining profits. Through the miner alliance, users can rent mining machines. In the form of "deposit contract" to ensure that each miner's fund is dedicated, and at the same time, for each miner, it is considered to realize the real deposit settlement on schedule through the blockchain intelligent contract. After the Forbes miner generates mining revenue, the user will get kusd stable currency. In the operation plan of Forbes Dao, all the miners who join the mine have the opportunity to convert part of the profits into GFS with unlimited potential. It is estimated that the early participants in the Forbes miner's program will have more than 1.6 times the deposit during the lease term of one year. It was asked where such gains came from. In fact, as a representative project of blockchain 4.0, the appreciation of GFS is inevitable. At present, the trading of GFS secondary market has increased by more than 10 times in a week. With the continuous extension of parallel chain and the continuous exploration of financial business, there is almost no doubt that the growth of GFS exceeds that of bitcoin in a year, even if it is halved. Forbes Dao mass produces Forbes super miner through the digital assets mortgaged by users. After the cost is removed, it covers more than 1.6 times of the revenue to nodes. Almost the secondary market value of GFS alone is far beyond. In addition, the BTC value dug out in the miner's Alliance plan will become a stable support for the miner's Alliance Plan, and 2020 is known as bitcoin minus half a year. Get BTC while digging GFS. To say the least, the price of GFS has fluctuated, and the BTC dug out is actually stable. Not to mention that the layout of Forbes gold stable currency, Forbes DEX and so on has been dragged down, and the user's income is cashed at any time. Forbes' miner plan is a three-way and multi win business initiative, which is the distributed power.
Miners, looking for a big mining facility to collaborate with, can depend on MinedBlock for the use of its services. The mining company is open to providing individuals looking to mine cryptocurrencies with a remarkable platform. This saves individuals from carrying the financial burden that comes with building a decent mining rig. The running cost of a mining facility is usually high due to the electricity consumption of the equipment used. Making a profit could be extremely tough. Often, mining companies are neck deep in debts due to their electricity bills. MinedBlock intends to avoid this cataclysmic situation by citing its mining facilities in areas with surplus renewable energy sources. This wouldn’t just assist MinedBlock to save money, the environment will be better for it. To ensure a distinction of their operations, MinedBlock inculcates two tokens – MBTX (security token) and MBTU (utility token). While investors take possession of the MBTX and earn returns as stipulated in their whitepaper, individual miners can take advantage of the MBTU to pay for the use of the mining facility. There are benefits associated with both tokens. The MBTX and MBTU earn you profits, but trading and other uses vary. The security token isn’t for sale outside the security tokens exchanges while the utility token can be traded on just about anywhere. If you intend using the MinedBlock platform for mining, payment will involve the use of the utility token MBTU. Unlike many other mining facilities that dedicate their effort to mining bitcoin, MinedBlock mines several cryptocurrencies. This is an expensive venture since mining different tokens involve distinct machinery. Apparently, the mining company must have the wherewithal to purchase the required gadgets for mining different tokens. The onset of a mining operation might take so much of your time, especially when configuring the device to do what you want. Many facilities couldn’t care less about the challenges you are up against, but not MinedBlock. They set up everything for an individual miner, so you won’t have to go through the stress of doing it yourself and the associated time constraints that come with it. Website: https://www.minedblock.io/ White paper: https://www.minedblock.io/assets/MinedBlockWhitepaper.pdf Username: AE012
PSA: Amaury, Peter, Emin, Zander, all have 1 thing in common, they're all devs w/ big egos, underfunded, and eager to prove their worth "patching" bitcoin cash. Right now we're living the phase devs against bitcoin cash. BU+ trolls brigade rbtc heavily, take everything w/ a pinch of salt & DYOR!
I've noticed that the anti-CSW brigading in this sub has gotten really aggressive. I have been away from Reddit for a couple of month because my old account got shadowbanned and because I haven't had time to be online much. Here is an old post I did about BU trolls 2 months ago that was removed because my account got shadowbanned. BU's troll machinery includes a lot of devs (mediocre as well as good devs like Thomas Zander) and proper shills or UIs (useful idiots) who have been recruited to shill through BU's communities or chats. Communications wise BU is the closest thing to Blockstream from what I have seen in this subreddit. BU's number 1 target is CSW.BU's number 2 target is Bitcoin ABC/Amaury. Remember that everyone is welcome to contribute to Bitcoin Cash, but it is important to be aware of groups that engage in astroturfing to not allow any party to manipulate consensus. In the Amaury-CSW controversy BU trolls have flocked around Amaury. Don't be fooled though, the same trolls only 1-2 weeks ago heavily brigaded any threads critical of Andrew Stone's OP_GROUP proposal (Amaury was the main critic) and tried to depict Amaury as a gatekeeper. Amaury tends to act like a gatekeeper, yet brigading and astroturfing is not the way to deal with it. BU's functional lead troll is Contrarian, I have seen Contrarian attack everyone, even Roger Ver as "a fraud" and felon except of Peter Rizun. Contrarian believes that Peter Rizun should be in charge of bitcoin cash (he stated this in at least one comment). He has attacked me of being a shill because of some old spammy link posts I did a long time ago in my profile. I have already explained that those were old posts when I was working in e-commerce which were done through social exchange sites like addmefast where you do something, accumulate points and in exchange can ask others to do something for you. I invited Contrarian publicly for a youtube debate which he refused to do in order "to protect his identity". Remember that the most corrupt people in Bitcoin are Theymos and Cobra who also never come out in order "to protect their identity". When you hit Contrarian__ in reddit analyser this is what comes up: https://ibb.co/bEuMpT The most used word is Craig, the second most used word is Satoshi. The whole point of this 7 years old account is to attack and discredit CSW. The account is 7 years old so the current owner probably bought it from another user and started using it to discredit CSW. Contrarian's critique of CSW boils down to "he is a liar" and he uses as proof white lies Craig said when he was forced to come out as Satoshi. The bottomline is to remind everyone that the only irreplaceable thing in bitcoin cash is it being p2p cash. Everything else, every single dev is dispensable. Devs are at the service of miners and businesses, not vice versa. The moment devs stop serving businesses they should be kissed good bye. Not with astroturfing. But by abandoning or rejecting their software (even through a hard fork). This way only we won't have another Blockstream in Bitcoin Cash, by having users and those closest to users (businesses & miners) in charge. Bitcoin is above all a free market that consists of users, businesses and miners. Developers maintain the infrastructure, they do not design it. They can propose solutions but they cannot force feed changes or decide what to prioritize. Developers should develop exclusively what miners & businesses ask to be done, not what they think is required "to fix" the system. Recent attempts to fix non existent issues include also Amaury's pre-consensus (to make 0-conf more reliable, I still haven't met a business complaining about 0 conf) and other proposals to address the Selfish mining non issue. Selfish mining never happened in over 10 years, even when bitcoin's hash was much lower than today. Even if it's technically possible, the chances of it happening going forward are practically null. Selfish Mining very much reminds me of lightning, a nonexistent problem with an impossible solution. On the plus side I can say that in almost 9 months of activity in this community I haven't seen any signs that Amaury employs shills or sockpuppets. The only sockpuppet that occasionally defend Amaury are BU/Blockstream sockpuppets in debates agains CSW. Every dev should know that Bitcoin cash is open source, nobody is in charge other than the free market and only the market decides what is accepted and what is rejected. Not CSW. Not Amaury. Not BU. But hash and only hash. Devs who want to impose their views on the market should drop bitcoin cash right now and start working on their own coin.
Facebook’s Libra won’t be as power-hungry as Bitcoin
Libra, Facebook’s new cryptocurrency, is expected to have a smaller environmental footprint compared to some of its more notorious blockchain brethren, including bitcoin, according to experts. Its energy demands are projected to be more like those of existing data centers — which, while still demanding, aren’t quite as energy-hungry as mining bitcoins. The currency hasn’t launched yet, so it’s hard to know how those claims will stack up against reality. But its design — more centralized than most cryptocurrencies — means that Libra will likely draw less energy. Unlike its more decentralized peers, only a few trusted members of the Libra Association, the centralized hub for the currency, can create Libra. AN ORDER OF MAGNITUDE MORE EFFICIENT THAN BITCOIN “This is an order of magnitude more efficient than bitcoin will ever be,” says Ulrich Gallersdörfer, a researcher at Technical University of Munich focused on blockchain research. Gallersdörfer was the co-author on a recent paper in Joule30255-7) finding that bitcoin operations emit more climate-warming gas than the country of Jordan. Bitcoin uses so much energy because people who want to hold the cryptocurrency have to compete for it. That means bitcoin mining operations need huge amounts of computing power to snag a single coin, and to stay in the running, they all need to be running a set of complicated problems all at once. That uses a huge amount of energy every year — in 2018, researchers estimated that bitcoin used about as much energy as Ireland. By contrast, Libra is designed so that an algorithm issues units of the cryptocurrency in proportion to the size of a company’s initial deposit into the system. That’s still a lot to keep track of, but it’s nowhere near as complicated as a mining operation. Instead, it’s more like… normal data centers. Now, data centers draw power, too. In fact, data centers accounted for 2 percent of the total US energy usage in 2014, a 2016 study published by the DOE found. And they’re also responsible for about as many carbon dioxide emissions as the airline industry. But despite those drawbacks, these specially designed warehouses of servers are the rocks on which tech giants like Facebook continue to build and expand their digital empire. “Facebook or other companies will have to set up servers, will have to run the software, will have to validate transactions. But that’s not really anything different to running regular services for Facebook.com or for WhatsApp,” Gallersdörfer says. A USEFUL WAY TO GENERALLY CONSIDER HOW TO MAKE DATA CENTERS LESS ENVIRONMENTALLY TERRIBLE Facebook has made concerted efforts to make their centers more sustainable, but the energy demand prompted by Libra might be a useful way to generally consider how to make data centers less environmentally terrible. The easiest thing to do is make sure that the existing resources are used efficiently — so that might mean more efficient hardware. But it also means considering the vast amounts of water used to cool servers: in a lot of cases that fresh water flows through the system and gets discarded, a horrifying waste, especially in areas with water shortages. One way to meet the challenge in a water-scarce world is to reuse water as often as possible, says Emilio Tenuta, vice president of sustainability at Ecolab. But water can’t be reused forever in cooling systems. As it gets heated and moves through the pipes, salts and other contaminants — think of scale from hard water forming in a bathroom — can build up in the machinery, making it less efficient. But by constantly monitoring and treating the water as it goes through a system, companies like Ecolab hope they can recirculate water through cooling systems as often as possible, reducing the amount of water used in data centers overall. Making existing centers more efficient is great, but products on the scale of Libra could mean new data centers — and where they are matters. Companies could save themselves (and the world) a lot of environmental angst by simply looking for better locations to put data centers in the first place, Katrina Kelly-Pitou says. THE AREA WHERE WE’RE FAILING, IN THE UNITED STATES, IS CLEANING OUR POWER SUPPLY Kelly-Pitou, an urban systems strategist with architecture and engineering firm SmithGroup, says that companies should look for places with trained software engineers — to keep the servers running smoothly — and abundant, low-carbon power sources. By relying on a nearby hydroelectric dam, wind farm, or nuclear plant instead of coal or natural gas, data centers could dramatically cut their carbon footprint. That’s because ultimately, every data center relies on the energy grid. And that’s where many current data centers are falling short. “The area where we’re failing, in the United States, is cleaning our power supply, and ensuring that we have clean energy to power the economic development that we want,” Kelly-Pitou says. Libra hasn’t launched. We don’t know if it will take off. But for it to even get off the ground, it will need data centers — and developing greener data centers, and a lower-carbon energy grid to power them is something that could pay off no matter what.
My attempt at an ELI5 for cryptocurrency to help my friends.
This is a long one so fair warning and no there is no tl;dr. I've only been at this for about 6 months and worked up this paper the other day for my friends who are interested but know very little about this. Hopefully whoever reads this can make in corrections as I am far from an expert. Blockchain Cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, Ether are all blockchains. Blockchains are basically a spreadsheet (LEDGER) that is duplicated multiple times across a network and updated regularly simultaneously. There is no centralized version of this ledger. It is hosted simultaneously by thousands/millions of computers. These ledgers will update on their own, Bitcoin as an example automatically checks itself every 10 minutes. Each of these 10-minute increment of transactions (in bitcoins case transactions would be sending or receiving bitcoins from one person to another for goods or services) are called BLOCKS. For these blocks to be confirmed, accepted, and updated to the ledger nodes are required. Nodes (Mining/Forging) A node is a computer running the blockchain software on the network. The blockchain software will automatically download the entire ledger of all transactions since its inception. At regular intervals, the software will take the transactions of a block (data on the ledger) and convert them into a mathematical puzzle to be solved by randomly chosen nodes (MINING). Mining requires powerful processors (typically GPUs) and substantial quantities of energy to receive mined tokens profitably. When a specific number of nodes solve the puzzle with the same answer they are basically confirming that the data on the block is accurate as multiple independent nodes found the same answer. When confirmed, the block gets added to the previous blocks making a chain of blocks aka a blockchain. As an incentive to run your computer as a node you are rewarded with TOKENS. If a single person or group of people wanted to manipulate the ledger, the amount of machinery and electricity used to achieve the majority of miners thus allowing you to manipulate the ledger is so exponentially expensive that it serves no reasonable purpose. This is an example of a Proof of Work Blockchain System (computer solves puzzle and rewarded with tokens) Tokens Tokens are part of the core of the blockchain. They are an incentive to validate transactions and create blocks. They gain intrinsic value based on the blockchain they are associated with. Some blockchains grant token holder’s different abilities. With Bitcoin, tokens are needed to pay for transaction fees. Others allow voting rights on how certain blockchain functions are managed. There is a limited amount of Bitcoin that will ever be released to nodes (21 million expected to be all be released by 2033) which also keep inflation from being a problem. Blockchains can create their platform with whatever number of tokens they would like and release them or create means to mine them as they see fit. Essentially, as with any other fiat money (currency that a government has declared to be legal tender NOT backed by a physical commodity), as adoption and trust increases the value of the token will increase. If most people accept Bitcoin for services and stores accept Bitcoin for goods than it is as good as the next currency. Wallets Whether you mine for tokens, are paid in tokens for goods or services or purchase tokens from a person or currency exchange you need a place to store them securely and a way to send and receive them. Cryptocurrency Wallets don’t store currency, they hold your public and private keys that interface with the blockchain so you can access your balance, send money and manage your funds. The public key allows others to send money to the public key only. A wallet that is "offline" (see Hardware or Paper below) cannot access funds or send money unless it is accessed with another form of wallet, either desktop, online, or mobile. 1) Desktop Wallet - Installed on your computer and are only accessible from that SINGLE computer. Very secure but if someone hacks your computer you are exposed. 2) Online Wallet - Run remotely (cloud based) and are far more convenient to access but make them more vulnerable as they are controlled by a third party and are also vulnerable to hacking attacks. Exchange wallets are online wallets but you are not in control of the private key. View it as a wallet that is lended to you so you can trade. The wallet is technically not yours. 3) Mobile - Ran on an app and are useful as they can be used anywhere including retail stores 4) Hardware - Private keys are stored on a tangible device like a USB drive. They can make transactions online but they are stored offline. Compatible with web interfaces and support many but not all currencies. To use, plug into a computer, enter a pin, send currency and confirm. Safest form of storage. 5) Paper - Basically a physical printout of your private and public keys. It is not stored online anywhere and the only way transactions can happen is if you transfer money with the help of an Online wallet. Example of a Public Key = 1A684DbsHQKPVCWgaUsYdF4uQGwTiA9BFT Example of a Private Key = E9873D79C6D87DC0FB6A5778633389F4453213303DA61F20BD67FC233AA33262 Most wallets provide a Recovery Mnemonic Passcode that is a series of words (typically 12 to 24 words) in a specific order. If you lose your login information for your wallet you can supply the mnemonic passcode and retrieve your lost login information. If you lose your login information and your mnemonic passcode your wallet will be inaccessible and your tokens are lost to you. The above basically describes a first generation Blockchain Cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin. It is used basically as currency with no centralized entity regulating the release of additional currency and keeping the ledger of where the money is going secure and extremely safe from manipulation. Second Generation Blockchain The second generation blockchains sprung out of this environment with something more valuable. Utilizing the blockchain system to allow applications to be ran on top of a decentralized secure system. Instead of just recording transactions, contracts could be transmitted the same way. More complex transactions (SMART CONTRACTS) allow for things such as: - Funds to be spent only when a required percentage of people agree - Manage agreements between users (such as insurance) - Provide utility to other contracts - Store information about an application such as domain registration information or membership records This basically can allow applications to be ran on top of the blockchain system. This can cut out the middleman for many real-world applications (mortgages, banking, communications, security confirmations etc.) Proof of Work/Proof of Stake As I mentioned earlier, Proof of Work (PoW) requires nodes to solve a mathematical puzzle which is rewarded with tokens. Proof of Stake (PoS) is different, the tokens with proof of stake systems are pre-mined meaning they are all created when the blockchain system is created. Blocks are not verified by the typical method. The block validator uses the blockchain software to stake their tokens and are chosen based on specific factors depending on how many tokens the person holds and for how long. Depending on how many tokens they hold will restrict the quantity of blocks they can validate. If they own more they can validate more often but all validators will be chosen randomly keeping the rewards fairly distributed (unlike PoW which typically reward the first completed.) The blockchain still requires a mathematical puzzle to be solved but it is much easier than PoW requiring far less time and energy. If the blockchain has premined all of their tokens then new tokens cannot be mined for rewards in PoS. The reward for staking your tokens to be a validator is a portion of the transaction fee that is charged as part of normal transactions on the blockchain. That is why PoS miners are called forgers. If manipulation is attempted than their stake can be taken from their wallet adding more motivation to prevent data manipulation. Fork Some cryptocurrencies may need to update or upgrade the coding of their blockchain software. When this happens usually a fork occurs. This basically means the cryptocurrency splits into two separate cryptocurrencies. Because the nature of blockchain technology, they are decentralized and autonomous so the older version cannot be deleted or removed. If people choose to continue using the old version they can. For mining/forging purposes the nodes will need to choose which they will mine/forge and download the blockchain software on their computer to proceed. When the fork occurs, anyone holding tokens in the original currency will be given the same number of tokens in the forked currency. (When Bitcoin forked to Bitcoin Cash, anyone holding x amount of Bitcoin would receive a new wallet for Bitcoin Cash also containing x amount of Bitcoin Cash.) This is called a Hard Fork and all previous transactions are made invalid. There are also Soft Forks, in this case it is backwards compatible and all previous transactions are valid. This can result in two currencies but in most cases, it doesn’t as it is usually accepted by most miners/forgers because it is backwards compatible. Exchanges Online currency exchanges allow you to buy, sell or exchange fiat money (USD, EUR, etc) with digital currencies or in most cases digital currencies for other digital currencies. There are a large variety of different exchanges that are operated in multiple countries but there are around a dozen that the majority of cryptocurrency trading volume are present on. Not all cryptocurrencies will be listed on all exchanges, some have specific prerequisites to be listed on their exchange and there may be fees associated as well. Once your account is set up you will have a list of all available cryptocurrencies to trade. Each currency will have an associated online wallet with the public key address allowing you to send that specific currency to that wallet. (Many exchanges are having delayed or canceled identity verification, currency transfers and lack sufficient customer support due to the influx of new traders) Examples of top exchanges: 1) Coinbase (trades fiat) 2) GDAX (trades fiat) 3) Gemini (trades fiat) 4) Changelly (trades fiat) 5) Bittrex 6) Binance 7) HitBTC 8) EtherDelta 9) Bitfinex 10) Kraken 11) Bithumb 12) Bitstamp 13) Poloniex 14) OKEx Sending/Receiving Tokens All wallets have the ability to send digital currency to other wallets. The function is relatively easy, make sure the currency you are sending is going to the appropriate wallet for that currency. Ethereum tokens cannot be sent to a Bitcoin wallet for example. (The tokens aren’t actually moving location; the list of transactions/ownership is what is stored in the wallet). Triple check the wallet private key you are sending the tokens to. If you type the wrong address the tokens will be lost in nearly all incidents. Some mobile wallets allow you to scan a QR code that will automatically enter the public key rather than copying/pasting or typing out the public key. Taxes As of January 1, 2018 it appears that taxing on digital currency has changed. Every trade between any digital currencies (Bitcoin to Ether, Ether to Litecoin etc) will be a taxable transaction. If you hold the currency for longer than one year than you will pay capital gain tax when it is traded or sold (15%-20%) and if you sell or trade in less than a year you will have to add the profit to your taxable income to adjust your tax bracket. Altcoins Altcoins are basically any coin that is not Bitcoin. Most cryptocurrencies do not have a native blockchain (their own independent dedicated blockchain). Bitcoin, Ether, Ripple, Waves, NXT, Cardano all have their own native blockchain. Many other cryptocurrencies run on other cryptocurrency’s blockchains. Litecoin runs on Bitcoins blockchain, hundreds run on the Ethereum blockchain. These currencies act as smart contracts running on the adopted blockchain. DApps (Decentralized Applications) For a blockchain application to be considered a DApp it must be 1) Open source, code available to all 2) Decentralized, uses blockchain cryptographic tech 3) Incentive, must have tokens to fuel itself 4) Algorithm/Protocol, generates tokens and has a built-in consensus mechanism (mining/forging.) There are 3 types of DApps, each basically piggybacks off the platform of the previous Type 1 – Have their own blockchain (like bitcoin) Type 2 – Use the blockchain of Type 1 DApps Type 3 – Use the protocol of Type 2 DApps ICO (Initial Coin Offering) Much like an IPO (Initial Public Offering) that offers stock in a private company to the public, an ICO raises money for new Cryptocurrency ventures. Typically, a minimum investment is required in the form of a cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin or Ether and the investor is given tokens of the cryptocurrency at a reduced cost. Due to the fact that ICO’s are so new, government agencies have not begun regulating these ventures making them extremely risky as anyone with a competent coder can create and market a cryptocurrency that can be used to swindle investors who aren’t cautious. The US government no longer allows its citizens to participate in ICO’s and if you are using a computer with an IP address located in the United States, ICO’s websites will not allow you to invest. Research 1) Whitepapers – Each cryptocurrency will have their own dedicated websites and most will have a whitepaper that has a description of what their cryptocurrency is designed to do. 2) Roadmaps – Also on each cryptocurrency’s website, they tend to have a roadmap or timeline as to when they are planning to complete certain milestones be it added features to the blockchain or wallet or any other important events. 3) Coinmarketcap.com – List of every available cryptocurrency, the exchanges they trade on, market cap, trade volume, available tokens, newly created tokens etc. 4) Reddit.com (cryptocurrency subreddit) – Subreddits focused on cryptocurrency as well as specific subreddits focused on individual cryptocurrencies. Be cautious as many people on these sites are uninformed and/or are trying to manipulate the market by fooling others to buy or sell based on fraudulent information. 5) Bitcointalk.org – Forums specific to individual cryptocurrencies. There is a lot of self-marketing (bounties) on this site. Take what they say with a grain of salt 6) TwitteFacebook (Social Media) – Many times news from team members or the cryptocurrency’s social media page will break news before it is listed on any of the above-mentioned outlets. Find out who is working for the cryptocurrency you are interested in and start following the team’s social media. Don’t forget to look at their linkedin accounts if available, previous employment and behavioral history to confirm they are competent. 7) Github - Code from projects can be uploaded here and reviewed for issues and revisions. Common Terms/Slang Shilling – covert advertising, personally endorsing a token so as to manipulate the price to either recoup a loss or increase gains on a token the individual owns. FUD – Fear, Uncertainty, Doubt; another method to manipulate the price of a token the person owns by making others second guess their investment decision on a specific token. FOMO – Fear Of Missing Out; buying a token (usually after the price has already increased) hoping they haven’t missed the majority of a price increase. Shitcoin – A cryptocurrency that has become worthless overtime or a scam operation. To the Moon – Massive increase in a token’s price. I'm sure there are probably revisions to be done on this as I am still getting my head around all of the concepts. Any help to this would be appreciated.
China Is Planning to Ban Bitcoin Mining The government of the People's Republic of China is reportedly considering bringing an end to all crypto mining in the country. On Tuesday (April 9), Reuters reported that China's National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) had announced on Monday that it was "seeking public opinions on a revised list of industries it wants to encourage, restrict or eliminate"; this list, which is known as "Guiding Catalogue for the Adjustment of Industrial Structure", has been issued since 2005. The Guiding Catalogue is "a document supplementary" to the "Interim Regulation on Promoting the Adjustment of Industrial Structure". When it was first issued, it covered "more than 20 industries that include agriculture, water conservancy, coal, power, transportation, information industry, iron and steel, nonferrous metals, petrochemical industry, building materials, machinery, light and textile industries, service industry, environmental and ecological protection, conservation and comprehensive use of resources, and etc," and in total, there were "539 articles in the encouraged category, 190 in the restricted category and 399 in the to-be-eliminated category." https://preview.redd.it/zev4p5bzear21.jpg?width=1000&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=3fb3809e45ae8286eddec8d0b2d859dc36f7cb8f
Choice of Entity: Legal Concerns Associated With Founding a Mining Business
Hey everyone, I just wrote something up about the nuances associated with forming a mining business in the United States. It's meant to help people comply with tax reporting requirements in the most business-owner friendly way possible. As always, please consult with your accountant and/or lawyer before acting on any of this information, it's meant to be used as a resource, not as legal advice. I'll be writing up more legal-related news like this in the future, if you'd like more info, let me know and I'll give you the URL of the website I'm working on (still in development but will eventually have lots and lots of useful info like this). *Please keep in mind I am NOT a lawyer (I am in law school, but I have zero credentials as of yet). This should NOT be relied on as your exclusive source of legal information. Without further ado: -------------|Choice of Entity: Legal Concerns Associated With Founding A Mining Business|----------- You're probably wondering, what is the most efficient way to structure a new mining business. While the facts do vary, in the most instances, the answer is as an S-Corporation. Odds are, you're either thinking about setting the business up as an LLC or an S-Corp. Although many think the tax consequences are the same because these are both pass through entities, this assumption is false. S-Corporations are usually going to the be the most efficient tax vehicle for a new mining business. The reason for this is self-employment tax. LLC co-venturers must pay self-employment tax, in addition to their normal individual rate tax, of approximately 17% if they provide a 'service.' Mining is a service! -------------------------------------------|Why is Mining A 'Service'?|------------------------------------------ At first glance, mining may seem like a passive activity. All you do is plug in the miner and it runs in the background all by itself with little to no maintenance required. Where's the service? The easiest way to conceptualize mining as a service is to think about the actual passive version of investing in whatever cryptocurrency one plans to mine. Truly passive cryptocurrency investing simply entails buying a cryptocurrency on an exchange and holding it with the hope of turning a profit. Unlike mining, passive cryptocurrency investing requires no specialized hardware, limited internet connectivity, and minimal power inputs (just the amount required to use your computer to access the internet to buy/sell the cryptocurrency). Unlike investing in cryptocurrency, mining is a business like activity (although in certain instances, it may only constitute hobby income; see section 183 of the Internal Revenue Code and the associated Treasury regulations for more information) that utilizes high tech machinery to solve a variety of complex equations and hash functions. In exchange for solving these equations, miners are rewarded with blocks of cryptocurrency that function as rewards. The cryptocurrency network benefits from miners (unless using a pure Proof of Stake framework, but that is outside the scope of this article) because miners process network transactions in a way that helps secure network stability and security. To hammer the point home, Bitcoin would collapse without miners. Think about the magnitude of that statement. Mining is an essential service for a multi-billion dollar asset class that benefits the national investing public AND the international investing public. Thus, mining is a service. -------------------------------------|Why Does It Matter if Mining Is A Service?|------------------------------- Knowing that mining is considered a 'service' is important when deciding what sort of limited liability entity to use when forming your client's mining business because it drastically affects their future tax liability. ------------------------------|Self-Employment Tax Implications of Operating a LLC|------------------------- LLCs are generally seen as desirable entities for new businesses because of lax corporate governance requirements, extreme freedom of contract, and favorable pass-through tax treatment (unless the founder elects to 'check-the-box' to be taxed as a corporation on the appropriate documents). Additionally, single member LLCs are seen as disregards and have a special tax treatment that will be discussed further elsewhere. For the purposes of self-employment tax, however, single member LLCs (a/k/a disregards) are afflicted by the same malady as member managed LLCs and Manager Managed LLCs--self-employment tax! Self-employment tax has an effective rate of roughly 17% (check these numbers). This tax is ADDED to the LLC member's pass-through tax liability on their tax returns. The governing statute (for self-employment related taxes) is 26 U.S.C. § 1402(a) and the regulations can be found at 26 C.F.R. 1.1402(a)-1, 1.1492(a)-2, and 1.1492(a)-3. This means that if a LLC co-venturer is in the highest tax bracket, they will be paying 37% in individual income tax on all earned income (whether or not distributed to members) PLUS 17% self-employment tax for an EFFECTIVE TAX RATE OF 54%!!!!!!! Even if a shareholder is only in the 25% individual income-tax rate, they will still have an effective tax rate of 42%, way too high to justify! Note that, at time of writing (and since 2015), the self-employment tax (when required to be paid) must be paid on the first $118,500 of "combined wages, tips, and net earnings;" note that the business will still be responsible for 2.9% Medicare tax on all self employment income (including all income about $118,500). [cites directly below]. See Self-Employment Tax (Social Security and Medicare Taxes), IRS, https://www.irs.gov/businesses/small-businesses-self-employed/self-employment-tax-social-security-and-medicare-taxes (last accessed Jan. 21, 2018); see also Tony Nitti, S Corporation Shareholder Compensation: How Much Is Enough?, THE TAX ADVISOR (Aug. 1, 2011), https://www.thetaxadviser.com/issues/2011/aug/nitti-aug2011.html#fnref_6. --------------------------|Self-Employment Tax Implications of Operating a S-Corporation|----------------- Forming an S-Corporation instead of an LLC offers many tax benefits for potential mining businesses. For example, S-Corporations offer the same beneficial tax pass-through treatment as LLCs. S-Corporations also offer the ability to AVOID ANY SELF-EMPLOYMENT TAX WHATSOEVER (in theory)!!!!!!! DISTRIBUTING INCOME S-Corporations have three main ways of distributing income: (1) employee salaries and payments to other creditors; (2) expansion / improvement expenses; and (3) making distributions to shareholders. EMPLOYMENT TAXES It is generally disadvantageous to pay yourself a salary when running an S-Corp. because salaries come with concomitant payroll tax requirements (the payroll tax is in place of a self-employment tax). Generally, shareholders prefer receiving distributions because no payroll tax is imposed on such distributions. Furthermore, these distributions are often tax free events if the shareholder has a positive basis in the corporation in excess of the amount of money being distributed to the shareholder. Rev. Rul. 59-221, 1959-1 C.B. 225 holds that a shareholder’s undistributed share of S corporation income is not treated as self-employment income. BASIS As a shareholder receives tax free distributions, their basis decreases dollar-for-dollar measured against tax-free received. Once a shareholders basis is zero, they will owe taxes on any additional income earned that year. Shareholders will pay long-term capital gain rates (in most instances) on distributions in excess of the shareholder's basis in the S-Corporation. ------------------------|SHAREHOLDERS PERFORMING SERVICES FOR THE CORPORATION|------------------ S-Corporation employee shareholders (i.e., a shareholder who also performs employee-like functions for the S-Corp) MUST be paid a "REASONABLE SALARY" for the performance of "SUBSTANTIAL SERVICES." For years, there was very little guidance on the meaning of "reasonable salary" or "substantial services." Luckily, we now have a much better idea of what these terms mean. For a great overview of case law and administrative rulings governing these issues, check out this article (also cited above) entitled S Corporation Shareholder Compensation: How Much Is Enough? (written by a CPA, MST). Essentially, within the context of a cryptocurrency mining business, your clients can avoid employment taxes (in most cases) because there is very little your clients will be doing that would qualify as substantial services. The term "substantial services" has been interpreted to require a fair amount of work (case law examples often talk about someone working for 35 hours a week, 52 weeks a year as constituting "substantial services"). Running a small to medium scale mining business is a fairly barebones operation. ---------------------------------|Fundamentals of Running a Mining Business|--------------------------------- STARTING UP Most mining operations require only the following startup materials: (1) mining hardware; (2) internet connection; and (3) adequate power source. These are the minimum components required for a mining business. Medium to large scale mining operations will likely also require some sort of separate area (i.e., signing a commercial lease) to put the mining hardware as it can get quite loud with $50,000 or more of equipment running on a non-stop basis. The mining business operator need only set up his mining hardware once and maybe troubleshoot occasionally or add/upgrade a machine. While setting up a miner can sometimes be a pain in the rear, it seldom takes more than a couple hours (keep in mind, this estimate is for businesses using commercial ASIC miners; people building their own miners warrant special considerations due to extreme time commitments required for such build-outs). PRINCIPAL FUNCTIONS As the principal function of the business is to solve transactions with complex hashing functions only solvable with specific computerized technology, the other duties associated with running a mining business are largely administrative, can be easily automated, and require only minimal supervision and monitoring. These other duties include: (1) sending mined coins from the mining pool to their wallet; (2) recording the value of a mined coin at the time it is mined (or transferred from the mining pool to the miner's business wallet if done on a consistent incremental basis); (3) keeping accurate financial records; (4) paying overhead costs; (5) occasionally logging into mining pool or miner IP address to ensure miner is running properly; (6) occasionally research new equipment for future purchases; and (7) make occasional but simple business decisions regarding whether to reinvest profits or distribute them to shareholders. TOTAL HOURS WORKED (WEEKLY BASIS) In the author's experience (running a very small three miner mining business), the average amount of time it takes to get a commercial ASIC miner running and to join a mining pool is about one hour of research and three hours of tinkering (and this was for someone with little previous experience in such matters) for a total of four hours per miner, plus or minus two hours depending on the type of miner and person. In terms of the other tasks associated with running a mining business, the author estimates that a total of roughly 20 hours per year is the maximum amount of work required to operate a small mining business. A medium-sized mining business in a commercial building should expect to spend between 10 and 50 hours per year performing employee-like tasks. A large-scale mining operation's employee-like annual hour requirements will vary substantially depending on the business owners' automation and efficiency skills but may reasonably range anywhere between 10-200 hours. Looking at the above numbers, regarding hours spent performing employee-like tasks, it is relatively simple to figure out if the shareholders of a mining business may end up performing substantial services (see S-Corp info in section above) for the corporation. For small businesses, such as mine, the mining operator may only spend a maximum of 0.3846 hours per week (20 hours per year divided by 52 weeks) working on employee-like tasks. It is safe to assume 0.3846 hours per week does not constitute "substantial services." As such, no reasonable salary need be paid to the shareholder performing this amount of work. For medium-sized mining businesses, the average amount of hours worked per week may range (based on 10-50 hour annual estimate provided above) between 0.1923 hours per week and and 0.9615 hours per week (# of hours per year divided by 52 weeks). Once again, it is safe to assume that 0.9615 hours per week (the highest end of the average) does not constitute "substantial services." As such, no reasonable salary need be paid to the shareholder performing this amount of work (especially if this amount of work is spread out over multiple shareholders). For large-scale mining businesses, a special evaluation will be necessary as setup may require a substantial amount of upfront effort and may skew the number of hours being worked. Additionally, it is possible for the amount of employee-like annual hours to vary substantially year-to-year which would cause the corporation's employment tax liabilities to vary accordingly. If we assume that the 10-200 hour estimate provided above is reasonable, we can calculate an average weekly hourly output of between 0.1923 hours per week and 3.84 hours per week (# of hours per year divided by 52 weeks). If a single employee is performing 3.84 hours of work per week, it is possible this constitutes "substantial services" when performed on a consistent basis over a continuous 52-week period. Contra Davis v. United States, No. 93-C-1173 (D. Colo. 1994) (holding that an average work week of 12 hours per week does not constitute substantial services). That said, it is entirely possible that 3.84 hours per week may fall well below the standard established by Radtke v. United States, 712 F. Supp. 143 (E.D. Wis. 1989) (distinguished on other grounds) (holding "where the corporation’s only director had the corporation pay himself, the only significant employee, no salary for substantial services . . . [h]is ‘dividends’ functioned as remuneration for employment."). As always, do your own research and advise your clients accordingly. The sources identified in this article should steer you in the right direction. Keep in mind that hiccups happen in business, and sometimes, a mining business may require long and consistent employee-like working hours by the shareholder-operator (i.e., in the event of unexpected problems). In these cases, the general principles elucidated above become muddled. As hours increase in an upward fashion, the more likely it becomes that a shareholder may need to be paid a "reasonable salary." Make sure your client is aware of this and have them call you if they anticipate working substantially more hours than expected in any given year. Should your client encounter an unexpected and substantial increase in weekly hourly requirements, one possible option to avoid incurring employment tax liabilities is to break up the total amount of work among as many shareholders as possible to keep individual hours low. Please note that the IRS may take umbrage at this sort of gamesmanship and audit your client (please note that I have not researched this tax position; it is possible existing case law or Treasury Regulations already explicitly allow or disallow this; as always, do your own research). Davis v. United States, No. 93-C 1173 (D. Colo. 1994) (pertains to hours worked and duties performed) One case, Davis v. United States, No. 93-C-1173 (D. Colo. 1994), provides strong support for the position that S-Corporation shareholder mining operators, in most instances, are unlikely to be considered to have provided substantial services requiring reasonable compensation. In Davis, the taxpayer is a S-Corporation shareholder who performed "part-time clerical duties for the company, including paying bills, submitting invoices, making bank deposits, and communicating with independent contractor truck drivers." Ms. Davis also made business decisions for Mile High and took a few business trips. Ms. Davis was not paid a salary for her performance of these duties. Rather, Ms. Davis was paid in shareholder distributions. The IRS argued that such shareholder distributions were improper as the income received should have been classified as salary income as it was actually compensation for performance of substantial services. Davis held for the taxpayer voiding the IRS's imposition of employment taxes by holding that such taxes were assessed in a manner that was arbitrary and capricious. If Davis can be reasonably relied on (make your own judgment), most S-Corporation mining business shareholders will not be required to pay themselves a salary. Figure out your facts and apply the information above accordingly!
I'M SORRY I DIDN'T SEE YOU THERE???? ARE YOU SURE THAT YOU WANT TO PURCHASE THIS BOEING??? Retailers are concerned that the recent crash will affect more than just the local population. The appropriate researchers were contacted at the time of arrival, yet we have heard no response. It was horrible! The surged company is a long time dealer of delicious pipe dreams that span across millions of acres, and they promise nothing short of uniform success in their services and practices. However, things may have taken a turn for the better when the investor decided to drop the bass.
It only took a few seconds later for everyone in the room to figure out how to use metric instead of imperial, and the SI prefixes were flourishing in the field, holding hands like newlyweds and laughing across the machinery that lay in the puddles.
Bottled up inside me is a piece of what's mine. Driven by the sea side, it will not turn back the time. My bitcoin wallet. I CAN SEE CLEARLY. I CAN SEE YOU. I CAN SEE EVERYTHING NOW. Many of us abide by the capacity of no one being able to log and monitor our every crouton, but cretins make it so surveilled that your bickering is no longer deemed appropriate.
Never in my life have I come across such behaviors that mark something so unfathomable that not even the salmon will want to flow freely across it with their usual shameless air. Apropos the units that don't want to continue this game, I can understand the slight embodiment of Christ that comes with the responsibility of manure maneuvers. Although the seams do not cross, they will connect at a later date, and everything will be revealed to the innocence of the simple bard.
I'm sure you guys get these questions alot, I'm trying to read up as much as I can while getting some real word pov's. I work 40 hours a week as a physical therapist where I physically need to be at a certain location. I'm really interested in mining and purchasing equipment to mine. I've been reading as much as I can on the ROI of the machinery needed (still not 100% clear on it) But the whole concept to me is fascinating, even if the ROI isn't fantastic or this get rich quick like some may think. I personally think it just sounds fun. I make a comfortable living at my full time job so this would be something I do as a "hobby" I suppose. Is it realistic to mine while working 40 hours a week? I don't know if a physical presence is required for mining. Just seeking info from you guys. Thanks in advance. EDIT: I am invested in bitcoin and ethereum, also been thinking of services I can charge to receive payment in bitcoin, I used to do personal training and have been thinking of offering clients discounts for paying with bitcoin.
TL:DR: Don't bother mining if you want to get rich yo. You're way too late to the party. Welcome to the exciting and often stressful world of bitcoin! You are wondering what looks like a once in a lifetime opportunity to get rich quick. Of course you guys probably heard about this "mining" process but what is this? Simply put, a bitcoin mining machine that performs complicated calculations and when deemed correct by the network, receives a block which contains 25 bitcoins (XBT). This is how bitcoins are generated. So your brain instantly thinks, "Holy shit, how can I get on this gold rush?" Before you proceed further, I would like to explain the concept of mining further. Bitcoin is limited 21m in circulation. It is coded to release a certain number of blocks at a certain time frame, ie: this year the network will release close to 500,000 bitcoins. What this means is that the more people (or specifically the amount of mining power) mine, the less each person gets. The network tries to keep to this time frame through the process of difficulty adjustments which makes the calculations harder and this happens every 2 weeks. So every 2 weeks, you get less bitcoins with the same hash rate (mining power) based on what the difficulty changes are. Recently, the changes have been pretty staggering, jumping 226% in 2 months. You can see the difficulty changes here. Now, why are these changes so large? A bit of a simple history. Bitcoin's algorithm runs on SHA-256. This algorithm can be solved using many hardware, from CPU to GPU and dedicated hardware (Application Specific Integrated Circuits). When bitcoin first started, mining on CPU was a trivial process, you can pretty much earn 50 XBT (the block size then) every few hours between Q1 and Q2 of 2010. In late 2010, due to the difficulty increase that is reducing the effectiveness of CPU mining, people started to harness GPU mining. Only AMD GPU's architecture design are better optimized for bitcoin mining so this is what the community used. Immediate improvements of more than 10x was not uncommon. In time of course, GPUs reached their limit and people started to build dedicated. In the same vein as the CPU to GPU transition, similar performance increase was common. These ASICs can only perform SHA-256 calculation so they can be highly optimized. Their performance mainly depends on the die size of the chips exactly like CPU chips. In general, think of bitcoin mining's technological advancement no different to mining gold. Gold panning (CPUs) vs pickaxes (GPUs) vs machinery (ASICs) and we are still in the ASIC mining race. ASIC mining started with ASICMiner and Avalon being first to the market, both producing 130nm and 110nm chips. The technology are antiquated in comparison to CPUs and GPUs which are now 22nm with 14nm slated for Q1 next year by Intel but they are cheap to manufacture and with performance gains similar to the CPU to GPU transition, they were highly successful and popular for early adopters. At that point in time since there were less competing manufacturers and the low batch runs of their products, miners became really rich due to the slow increase in difficulty. The good days came to an end mid August with an unprecedented 35% increase in difficulty. This is due to existing manufacturers selling more hardware and many other players coming onto the market with better hardware (smaller die). Since die shrinking knowledge and manufacturing process are well known along with a large technological gap (110nm vs 22nm), you get an arms race. Current ASIC makers are closing in on our technological limit and until everyone catches up, the difficulty jumps will be high because it is just too easy to get a performance increase. Most newer products run at 28nm and most chips are not well optimized, so it will be around another 6 to 9 months before we see hit a hard plateau with 22nm or 14nm chips. The estimated time frame is because manufacturing chips at 22nm or 14nm is a more difficult and expensive task. In the meantime most manufacturers will probably settle at 28nm and we will reach a soft plateau in about 3 months. Now, you might ask these questions and should have them answered and if you have not thought about them at all, then you probably should not touch bitcoin until you understand cause you are highly unprepared and probably lose lots of money.
I read that you can mine with a CPU/GPU, should I do so?
No. If you have to ask, please do not touch bitcoin yet. You will spend more on electricity cost than mining any substantial bitcoin. Seriously. At all. A 7990 would produce a pitiful 0.02879 XBT (USD $14 @ $500/XBT exchange rate) for the next 30 days starting 23 Nov 2013 at 35% difficulty increase. And if you think you can mine on your laptop either on a CPU or GPU, you are probably going to melt it before you even get 0.01 XBT.
I get free electricity and I have existing hardware, should I still mine?
Probably not because you probably forgot that GPUs and CPUs produce a ton of heat and noise. You can try but I see no point earning < $20 bucks per month.
Should I buy an ASIC machine?
No, because your machine will probably not mine as much as buying bitcoins. This situation is called the opportunity cost. While you can still make money if XBT rise in value, it is a fallacy.
IE: if you start mining on 1 Dec 2013, a KnC Jupiter running at 450Gh/sec (KnC lies as not all chips run at 550Gh/sec) will yield you a total revenue of 9.5189 XBT with a profit of 0.7859 XBT in profit by 30th Jan 2014 at a constant difficulty increase of 35%. The opportunity cost is: 8.5910 XBT @ USD $580/XBT with USD $5,000 which is the cost of a KnC Jupiter. This is the best you can earn and it's a bloody optimistic assumption because:
You are assuming your pre-order will arrive on time. (I do not think any first batch pre-order from any manufacturer has arrived on time).
All pre-orders are sold out for 1 Dec.
You are assuming your chips will run at 450Gh/sec minimum but many miners here will tell you their chips have been under performing.
Electricity cost have not been taken into account.
Shipping cost and time has not been taking into account.
Import Tax or VAT has not been taken into account.
Risk of downtime due to DOA or warranties has not been taken into account.
You are assuming the difficulty increase will be a constant 35% which is very unlikely because Cointerra with a team that has worked on some of the world’s highest performance CPUs, GPUs and chipsets for NVIDIA, Intel, Samsung, Qualcomm and Nortel has pre-sold an absurd amount of hash rate. Difficulty increase of 45% or more (which we have seen when a small player, KnC shipped their 1st batch) will be repeated commonly. This is only 1 company, imagine what the rest will come out with. I have failed repeatedly and so have many in estimating future hashrate. You wont be able to do better.
Even if you earn some profit, it will be < 15% and will probably be not worth your risk or your trouble. I can buy and hold XBT with no risk of losing them.
The only circumstances where you will earn money is when XBT exchange rates is so high that it makes the opportunity cost pales in comparison. Unfortunately this is not the case. If XBT stabilized at 900/XBT today (20 Nov 2013) then we might have a good case. The risk is just generally not worth it. Unless you have at least a hundred thousand and can make a contract with a manufacturer for a lower cost, do not bother. Just wait until the arms race is over then you can start mining.
I understand I probably won't earn any money, I just want to do this for fun/hobby...
Okay, go buy an AsicMiner USB Block Erupter. They are cheap and pretty fun to have.
I want something with more omph and still do not mind losing money
Sure, just read the answer below on who NOT to go for. You are doing bitcoin a service by securing the network and you have our (the users') gratitude.
Who are the manufacturers?
You can check out the manufacturers and their products below along with a calculator here. If you still insist on buying, do not to go for BFL. Their track record is horrid and borderline scammish. KnC fucked up a lot with defective boards and chips. Personally, I think CoinTerra is the best choice. Alternatively, you can go on the secondary market to buy a delivered product. You can get a better deal there if you know how to do your "return on investment (ROI)" calculation. Personally, I will go for a 45%-50% difficulty increase for the next 3 months for my calculations and a 2% pool fee. However, most products on ebay are sold at a cost much higher than it should. bitcointalk.org is a cheaper place because everyone knows what are the true value is so you will find less options. If you are unclear or need assistance, please post a question.
Which pool should I use?
I actually do not use any of the pools recommended to the left because I think they lack features. My favourite is Bitminter (Variable fees based on features used; max 2%). It has all advanced features for a pool, very responsive and helpful owner on IRC. Variable fees is good for those who do not need a large feature set, even with all features turned on, it is still cheap. Eligius (0% fees) has high value for money but lacks features. It has anonymous mining which might be attractive to certain subset of people but not for others. Many other community member and I disagree highly with the opinions of the owner on the direction of bitcoin. I do use his pool for now but I do so only because I share my miners with a few partners and anonymous mining allows us to monitor the machines without using an account. Bitminter uses only OpenID which is problematic for me. BTC Guild (3% fees) is another big pool and is fully featured and does charge a premium for their fees. That said, they are the most stable of the lot. I do use them but do so only because my hoster uses them for monitoring. I try not to use them because a pool with a very large hash rate (they are the largest) presents a large vulnerability to bitcoin's network if compromised. All of them pay out transaction fees.
Your first Bitcoin: a sure way to get it without breaking a sweat
https://preview.redd.it/updzuh02lay11.png?width=770&format=png&auto=webp&s=0051158957049b5eb60cfab87f64406c5e992287 People do love money. Whatever the form, valuable assets we can benefit from can build a lot of hype. Bitcoin is a perfect case in point. The precious coin is a sort of all-in-all for millions of users around the globe, to say the least. Perhaps, one of the most frequent questions people ask about Bitcoin is: where does it come from? When it comes to traditional cash, it’s pretty obvious that “common” money is “born” in central banks. As for cryptocurrency (to be more specific, BTC), these days you have three different ways to get it. So, how about you and we find the best one? That’s the spirit! Well, let’s get started. Deeg it right to hit pay dirt! Mining is the most “ancient” way to acquire Bitcoins. Crypto mining was developed by a bunch of enthusiasts including tech-savvy libertarians, cryptographers and assorted hackers. Pretty soon, all easy money was scooped out. As for the Bitcoin vein, it remained buried under many tons of hard rock (in the cryptographic equivalent). The truth about Bitcoin mining is, only true geeks can do it. Only the guys with specialised, high-powered machinery who have an endless electricity source can profitably extract Bitcoins. In other words, Bitcoin mining is profitable for small companies only if they use free or really cheap electricity. Sad but true. https://preview.redd.it/gmdfga95lay11.png?width=768&format=png&auto=webp&s=6d271beb0af5918b150e3701819055747acfc9cb
Bitcoin as an investment? Don’t think so!
Another way to benefit from Bitcoin is to invest in it. Sure thing, the coin can boast of lots of great uses including cheap payment sending and better privacy. On the other hand, some stock markets refuse to deal with Bitcoins and cryptocurrencies. A year ago, people believed that Bitcoin is “a scary currency used on the black market to get guns and drugs shipped to your home.” Yep, that’s what Australians call “beating around the bush.” As for the real cons of Bitcoin investment, they are:
volatility (the prices always change in huge ways);
Bitcoins allows for online payments without ID (that’s bad as you can easily purchase “nasties” and avoid taxes);
it takes too long for Bitcoin network to verify transactions.
In terms of stock market, Bitcoin (and cryptocurrency as a whole) needs work. Luckily, there’s hope, all the pesky bugs will be fixed in the nearest future. You just wait and see!
Want it? Buy it directly!
Let’s see now, mining is too costly and dealing with stock markets is full of uncertainty (as yet). Not too promising situation, eh? Well, here’s the best part: there’s a user-friendly virtual ecosystem for you to own and use Bitcoins and other popular cryptocurrencies! That’s right, from now on you can use crypto coins for their intended purpose. Elegro, a team of IT-savvy eggheads, came out with a suite of blockchain-based products that build a fine payment structure. The system has every single tool to make you a proud cryptocurrency owner.
Solutions that make your coins busy
Crypto Exchange, a service that allows to exchange crypto coins for “common” money and back. In other words, you can get so-near-to-your-heart Bitcoin in the most comfy and “orthodox” way. Crypto Wallet. Now, here’s a real catch for cryptocurrency enthusiasts! The service allows to store, use, exchange and withdraw both traditional and crypto funds. The wallet can be branded. That means you can make it fit the company style. A customer-oriented product, the clear win. https://preview.redd.it/mrpjp2dalay11.png?width=768&format=png&auto=webp&s=8ef88976d9b0bfef65c32ef080db06c5557cfb7e Suppose, you want to go shopping and pay with Bitcoins. In this case, Retail (PoS) solution is off the charts. It turns your smartphone into a full-fledged Point-of-Sale accepting crypto coins. As a buyer, you don’t need to bother with all that bank-related stuff. As a merchant, you can accept Bitcoins and other popular coins to withdraw good old cash. Very business-like, very easy, and very little risk!
Sheikh Dr. Zaharuddin Abd Rahman — Chairman, Shariah Board Sheikh Dr. Zaharuddin Abd Rahman who is a Managing Director of Elzar Group of companies (Elzar Shariah Solutions Sdn Bhd, Elzar Resources Sdn Bhd, Elzar Trading Sdn Bhd and K-Fiqh Sdn Bhd). Dr. Zaharuddin served as an Assistant Professor at the Kulliyyah of Economics, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) for more than 10 years. He obtained his degree from University of Malaya, MA in Shariah from Al-Yarmouk University, Jordan and PHD in Islamic Studies and Finance from University of Wales. He is also a certified Islamic Finance trainer and lecturer by The Markfield Institute of Higher Education, United Kingdom. He has served RHB Islamic Bank Ltd, Malaysia as a Senior Shari’ah Manager & Product Development and later, joining Asian Finance Bank Ltd as Head of the Shari’ah Compliance. He has a vast experience in Shariah where he has served various institutions as Shariah Consultant and Advisor for Central Bank of Malaysia (BNM), OSK Investment Bank, Deutche Bank, Al-Rajhi Bank Malaysia, Standard Chartered Saadiq Bank, ACR ReTakaful Bahrain, BIMB Securities Sdn Bhd, BNP Paribas Bank and others. To-date, he has written over 20 books and hundreds of articles on Islamic Jurisprudence and Islamic Banking and other Shari’ah matters in journal, including local and international magazines and conferences. He frequently appears in the local television and radio lecturing on various Shari’ah issues especially with regards to the Islamic commercial transaction. His Facebook page ‘Dr. Zaharuddin Abd Rahman’ has about 1.3 million followers. LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/dr-zaharuddin-abd-rahman-05a0195/ Mr Vince Focarelli — Ambassador There was a time, whenever Vince Focarelli’s name was mentioned, it struck fear and hatred in the people’s heart, especially amongst the residents of Adelaide. That is not the case anymore. The former leader of the notorious gang ‘Comanchero’, he is now a transformed and completely different person after embracing Islam. Watch the interview with Vince about his journey to Islam. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N2jcCxBwm9s) Vince — now Imran Abdul Salam — is an active social activist, where he frequently gives motivational and inspirational talk about his journey to Islam. He is also actively involved in several humanitarian works such as organising a food convoy for the Yemeni refugees. He used to own and run a Halal Italian restaurant, La Fig Cucina in Adelaide, of which he wishes to expand its presence around the world. Vince has been appointed as the Ambassador to Bayan Token as he shares the same aspirations and noble intentions of spreading good to the wider mass. An avid preacher of kindness and goodness himself, he is very excited and looking forward to do greater good through the Shariah compliant Bayan Token. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Vince-Focarelli-1892643934346711/ Dato’ Zainal Abidin M Husain — Chairman Dato’ Zainal Abidin was a name to be reckoned with in the banking and financial industry. He served as a Manager for eight years at Arab-Malaysian Merchant Bank Berhad before becoming the Head of Finance at Halim Securities Sdn Bhd. He then made his leap of faith by founding Ikhtiar Destinasi Sdn Bhd. He has held many significant positions since then which include the Managing Director for Ikhtiar Factoring Sdn Bhd and Director for both Transpro Sdn Bhd and Ikhtiar Commerce Sdn Bhd. At 56, he is still active and going strong, overseeing Ikhtiar Destinasi Sdn Bhd as its Executive Chairman. He graduated from University of Minnesota in Accounting and Idaho State University in Masters in Education (Business). LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/dato-zainalabidin-husain-267927aa/ Nazimuddin Nazaruddin — Chief Executive Officer Nazimuddin graduated from Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), completing his Association of Chartered Certified Accountant (ACCA) professional course. He is a member of ACCA and Malaysia Institute of Accountants (MIA), and is currently a Chartered Accountant by background. He kickstarts his career in a medium sized Audit Firm, Afrizan Tarmili Khairul Azhar (AFTAAS), and continue his auditing career to one of the Big Four firm, Deloitte Malaysia based in Petaling Jaya, leading and managing various client’s portfolio, from small to big entities. Then he moved to Schlumberger KL Financial Hub as a Management Accountant, dealing with Financial Reporting and operational matters, taking care of Middle East area operations via working closely with Operation Controllers, specifically in Artificial Lift and Completions segment for Kuwait, UAE, and North Sudan. Currently he is practicing in his own firm Nazim & Co, an accounting firm under MIA, specializing in small medium entities portfolio’s. He has vast experience and well verse in International and local financial reporting standards, international standards of auditing, financial reporting compliance, statutory and taxation matters, performance management and internal audit compliance. LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/nazimuddin-nazaruddin-acca-ca-m-3391b1aa/ Ameerul Zafeeq Hizamuddin — Chief Financial Officer Ameerul Zafeeq is a chartered accountant graduated in 2010 from Kaplan Financial College, London. He started his career at Binder Dijker Otte (BDO) as an audit associate. He then moved to Accenture as Accountant before joining Royal Bank of Canada (RBC) as Fund Accountant to have a first-hand experience in investment field. Ameerul was hired by Petronas Carigali as a Senior Executive in 2016. He was promoted to Assistant Manager and moved to Petronas Berhad. He specialises in business planning, forecasting, budgeting and reporting. LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/ameerul-zafeeq-hizamuddin-883224a3/ Adam Effendy Mustapha — Chief Operating Officer Adam Effendy graduated from London School of Economics and Political Science in Bsc. Economics. Immediately after graduation, he was offered an executive position in UEM Group Berhad, serving both the Corporate Finance Department and the Managing Director’s office. He then moved to UEM Sunrise Berhad, gaining more experiences in the corporate world after serving total of three years in the Managing Director’s office and the Corporate Planning department. Adam then decided to resign and started his own publishing house that has published ten books to-date; two of them were national bestsellers. After two and half years being an entrepreneur, Adam craves for new challenges and wants to learn something novel and exciting. He quickly jumped at the offer to join the team as he gets to enjoy the best of two worlds; Islamic finance and financial technology. LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/adam-e-mustapha-661011b1/ Muhamad Akif Akmal Abdul Aziz — Chief Technology Officer A First-Class Honour graduate in B.Eng Electrical & Electronic from University of Adelaide, Muhamad Akif Akmal was an Electrical Engineer at Tarpon Energy Services Asia Pacific Sdn Bhd since 2014 before joining the team. He specialises in designing electrical system and instrument. Akif is a crypto and blockchain enthusiast who has traded using various platforms such as Poloniex, Shapeshift, Remitano and LocalBitcoins. He also has experiences in building GPU mining rig and designing mining farm. He was also a back-end technology consultant for several ICOs. LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/muhamad-akif-akmal-abdul-aziz-19b22a73/ Zikri Zainudin — Chief Technical Analyst A Financial Engineering graduate with 7 years of investment banking experience, Zikri Zainudin is a self-taught computer programmer. He applied complex algorithms and artiﬁcial intelligence to enhance the Z2 System into an integrated, advanced methodological application, designed for efﬁcient stock picking, complex alerts and automated execution to support professional trading. It took more than 10 years to derive the methodology, which is now known as the Z2 Protocol. Mr Steven Georgiadis — Legal Consultant Steven Georgiadis is a highly acclaimed and seasoned Trial Attorney with 18 years of accomplished experience. With a combination of a scholastic and reformist approach, he has netted triumphant proficiency in investment banking, private banking, Mergers & Acquisition, private equity transactions, corporate finance and corporate governance. Commonly sought internationally by prestigious cliental, he has become a highly respected advisor and esteemed leader. Steven, a graduate from Bond University, Gold Coast, Australian with Bachelor of Laws (LLB), has been solicited for his astute abilities in a vast array of legal disciplines including dispute resolution and in litigation for both hard and soft commodity sectors. LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/steven-georgiadis-06692768/ Mr Pierre Chuah — Marketing Expert Pierre Chuah is a Digital Marketing Cloud Specialist with 20 years of experience. With a holistic digital experiences, he is able to understand and implement various digital marketing technologies for businesses. Pierre started his career in KPMG Asia Pacific as an IT consultant in the implementation of SAP Finance solutions, for various companies in Malaysia and Singapore. Subsequently he led a team of 23 individuals in providing digital marketing consultancy to various multi-national companies such as Japanese Tobacco Industry (JTI), Carlsberg, Nissan, Cadbury, Kimberly Clarke, Mattel Toys, Adidas, Panasonic and many others in implementing digital marketing technologies. Pierre joins Oranje-ISC as a Digital Director in the year 2014 having developed and implemented a 360-digital experience for Langkawi Island. Under his direction, Oranje-ISC was made finalist in ‘Marketing Excellence Awards 2017’. He is professionally certified by SAP, Google, Oracle and Adobe. He graduated from Warwick University, United Kingdom BSc Management Science and City University, London with MSc Information System and Technology. LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/pierre-chuah-18222861/ Dr. Said Adekunle Mikail — Shariah Expert Dr. Said Adekunle Mikail is a researcher at International Shariah Research Academy for Islamic Finance (ISRA) and lecturer at International Centre for Education in Islamic Finance (INCEIF). His academic qualifications are distinguished; he graduated from Islamic University of Madinah with LLB (Shariah) and earned his Master’s Degree in Comparative Law from the International Islamic University of Malaysia (IIUM). He then obtained his PhD in Islamic Finance from the same university. Dr. Said’s experience in Islamic Finance is extensive. He was the Shariah advisor for BNP Paribas (Islamic Banking Window, Malaysia) in 2015. He was appointed as the Shariah Consultant to I Consult Africa (PTY) Ltd. Ethical and Responsible Advisory, South Africa in 2016 and still serving them until now. He is also a Shariah Consultant under ISRA Consultancy Sdn Bhd, which has served a number of high-profile clients including the Central Bank of Malaysia. Dr. Said holds a number of memberships in various esteemed bodies and organisations such as Al-Birr Investment and Credit Cooperative Society Limited (Chairman), Muslim Scholarship Fund of Nigeria (MSFN-Nigeria) (Partner), International Council of Islamic Finance Educators, Malaysia (Associate Member), Malaysia Institute of Management (Affiliate Member) and Malaysian Financial Planning Council. Being conferred the 21st Yayasan Tun Razak Youth Leadership Award in 2016 and Shariah Scholarship Award by ISRA in 2011, Dr Said has produced many academic publications and reports, which are internationally recognised. Dr Hameeth Shah Abdul Wahid — Biotech Project Expert Dr Hameeth Shah Abdul Wahid completed his MBBS from the International Islamic University of Malaysia (IIUM) in 2004. He started his career as a young doctor in Hospital Besar Alor Setar. Since the early days, he has special interest in Internal Medicine that lead him to take up postgrad studies in the subject matter. Eventually he completed his postgrad studies and obtained membership of Members of Royal College of Physician (MRCP), United Kingdom in 2014. Currently Dr Hameeth Shah is working as a Senior Lecturer at University Kuala Lumpur-Royal College of Medicine Perak (UNIKL-RCMP) and practicing as a Specialist in Internal Medicine at Pusat Pakar Perubatan Ar-Ridzuan in Ipoh, Perak. He also has special interest in cardiology and currently doing his fellowship in Interventional Cardiology. LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/hameeth-shah-67167445/ Siti Sarah Nadiah Suliman — Legal & Human Capital Director Siti Sarah Nadiah is a qualified lawyer, whose vast experience in legal practice ranges from human rights, civil litigation, commercial and banking law. Siti Sarah Nadiah graduated from UiTM with Honours Degree of Law and currently pursuing her Master’s degree in Islamic Finance Practice. She is also a Senior Associate Member of Chartered Institute of Islamic Finance Professionals (CIIF). LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/siti-sarah-nadiah-suliman-a16007159/ Noorashikin Zainal — Account & Finance Director Noorashikin Zainal has a total of more than 17 years of experience in accounting. She has handled accounts of companies of various businesses and industries, which include healthcare, electrical and electronics, real estate and event management. A graduate from UNITEN in accounting, Noorashikin’s last position was Account Manager at K-Fiqh Sdn Bhd. LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/noorashikin-zainal-b83686133/ Zainab Abdul Razak — Mart Operation Director Zainab joined Zalora, Asia’s leading online fashion platform as Operation Executive in 2012 before moving to Lazada, Malaysia’s largest e-commerce store as Senior Operation Associate in 2014, focusing on the warehouse operation. Zainab is now entrusted with managing the whole operation of Elzar Mart, a retail halal supermarket that offers everyday items at a very competitive price. LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/dea-zainab-a193756b/ Dr. Siti Hajar Pahmi — Biotechnology Consultant Dr Hajar completed her Bachelor’s degree in Biotechnology with First Class Honours in 2010 from the University of Queensland, Australia. The university, together with the Australian Government then funded her Ph.D in Medicinal Chemistry under the International Postgraduate Research Scholarship (IPRS) and the University of Queensland Centennial Scholarship, where she gained her doctorship in 2015. Whilst formal education is important to her, Dr Hajar also led and was heavily involved in multiple projects and events both in Australia and Malaysia. Throughout her student years, Dr Hajar’s leadership and management skills shone when she held several important positions in the Malaysian Students’ Council of Australia (MASCA) from 2007 to 2014. She maintains a balanced life by being active in sports, and have competed competitively and socially in netball, futsal, basketball, ultimate frisbee, and touch rugby. She is a strong advocate for healthy living as she believes in “healthy heart, healthy life”. LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/hajar-pahmi-19ba3860/ Mohamad Shafiq Ezhan Khairulazli — Creative & Marketing Director Mohamad Shafiq Ezhan has more than 10 years of experience in creative art and design. He is the founding partner and Creative Director of Talenta Holdings Sdn Bhd, whose clients include Petronas, Telekom Malaysia Berhad and Little Trees (a company based in the United States). A graduate from UniKL MFI in mechatronics, Shafiq Ezhan’s experience also includes marketing and image and branding strategy. Siddiq Mohd Amin — Shariah Secretary Siddiq Mohd Amin graduated from University of al-Azhar, Cairo with a Bachelor in Shariah in 2016. An excellent student with Best Student Award in his third year, he immediately started his career with Elzar Shariah Solutions and Advisory upon his graduation as a Shariah Associate. LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/siddiq-mohd-amin-516b76162/ Professor Dato’ Dr Norbik Bashah Idris — Advisor Dato Dr Norbik Bashah Idris is currently a Professor at Kulliyah of ICT in IIUM. He started his academic career in 1983 with UTM and has been attributed as one of the early pioneers of Cybersecurity in Malaysia. Throughout his career, he has been a member of SIGSAC –(Special Interest Group on Security, Audit and Control) of the ACM (Association of Computing Machinery), IEEE Computer Society, New York Academy of Science, USA and IFIP Working Group-11.3 on Database Security (USA). As a cybersecurity professional, Prof Norbik carries CISSP & CISM certifications from ISC2 & ISACA. In 1995 he led a team which won a strategic research grant from MOSTI to start the first major research work on Cryptography in Malaysia which produced a suite of indigenious cryptographic utilities. In 1998 Prof Norbik founded the first Real-time Software Engineering Centre of Excellence in Malaysia, where he collaborated with the University of Thales from Paris. The cybersecurity R&D team he led later became incorporated as a company which won a significant project from the Malaysian Government to help monitor security of government’s network throughout the country. The company later became the first public-listed company on Cybersecurity in Malaysia. Following his success in Malaysia, Prof Norbik repeated the success into other ASEAN countries and later into the Gulf countries (UAE & Saudi Arabia). Throughout his career Prof Norbik has been a Keynote Speaker, Visiting Professor, Corporate Figure, Consultant & Advisor on Cybersecurity to various Organizations & Governments, both in Malaysia & international. He was nominee for 2007 Ernst & Young Best IT Entrepreneur, twice Distinguished ISC2 Award winner for Asia-Pacific, IDG Distinguished Chief Security Officer for Asia Pacific, winner of at least 7 Gold medals in various exhibitions and competitions on Cybersecurity products & services, and holder of a few patents. Prof Norbik’s latest interest is in synergizing cybersecurity & DLT (Blockchain/Tangle) into Islamic Fintech products & services in the hope of contributing to the Maqasid Shariah. LinkedIn: https://my.linkedin.com/in/norbik-idris-92102036 Mr Hj Khairil Anuar Mohd Noor — Advisor Khairil Anuar has been an international banker for over 27 years, where the past 18 years has been in Islamic Finance. Over the course of his career as a banker, he has had a significant exposure and experience across a multitude of area including wholesale banking, syndications, trade finance, debt and capital market, asset management, retail banking, cash management, banking operation, system implementation and product management to name a few. Khairil had helmed HSBC Malaysia’s and Bank Simpanan Nasional’s Islamic Banking Division. He then moved to Dubai serving Emirates Islamic Bank as its Head of Marketing. His last posting was the Head of Structuring, Product Management and Business Intelligence for Wholesale Banking Group at Al Hilal Bank, Abu Dhabi, where he served for almost 10 years. From 2006 until recently, Khairil has been instrumental in developing the Islamic Finance capabilities of Al Rajhi Bank Malaysia, Mashreq Bank, Dubai and Al Hilal Bank, Abu Dhabi and Kazakhstan within wholesale, retail and operation setting. He graduated with MBA from Saint Louis University in Missouri, USA in 1987, where he also spent 2 years working for a premier stock broking firm there. LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/khairil-anuar-mohd-noor-77040313/ Mr Zuheer Mohammed Majid — Advisor Zuheer Mohammed Majid is an experienced banker whose career spans over almost 30 years. Now a Senior Vice President in Citibank Malaysia Berhad, his journey in banking began when he joined United Malayan Banking Berhad (now RHB Bank Berhad) in 1986. He then became Assistant Vice President at ABN AMRO Bank Berhad before serving Hong Leong Bank Berhad as Manager for Trade Finance and Correspondent Banking. Zuheer’s expertise across many areas in the industry had landed him the Senior Vice President post in Citigroup Transaction Services Malaysia Sdn Bhd, where in year 2000, he joined them to oversee the trade services/finance operations and advisory services. He graduated from Irvine University, California with an MBA. LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/zuheer-mohammed-majid-7a32301b/ Mr Hj Zainuddin Md Yusof — Advisor A market trader with a background in statistics, Hj Zainuddin started trading the global markets in the 1980’s. Aside from having more than 30 years exposure to the global markets, specializing in the US equity market; he has spent thousands of hours testing and enhancing technical trading tools to develop a state-of-the-art proprietary trading system — the Z2 System — which combines technical and fundamental analysis to identify optimum trading opportunities using cutting-edge technology. Mr Hj Zulhisham Ayob — Advisor Haji Zulhisham is a top-notch seasoned player in the media and marketing communications industries. He has over three decades of working experience in Broadcasting and Marketing Communications prior to founding Oranje-ISC. Among others, he had served as the Chief Operating Officer in Radio Airtime Services, Executive Vice President Marketing for IT Vista and Executive Director of Pakarmedia Sdn Berhad. Apart from media industry, Haji Zulhisham is an entrepreneur who founded the Home of TAHFIZ Darul Siddir — A specialist Islamic religious institutions serving and nourishing Islamic spiritual needs promoting mainstream learning of Islam based on the Quran and Sunnah, preparing for the future generations. Home of TAHFIZ Darul Siddir is committed to the dissemination of Islamic knowledge through the traditional time honoured methods for the Glory of Allah (Glorious and Almighty He is) and in honour of our Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessing upon him). Another outfit founded by Haji Zulhisham is Twentytwo Multi-Labels Concept Store skewed towards offering Muslimah fashions. With more than 100 brands housed under one roof physically and digitally, Twentytwo provides trading, branding and marketing solutions to its business partners and variety of affordable designer brands suitable not only for Moslems, but those who desires to look fashionable and elegant yet dignified. Mr Khairu Rejal — Advisor Khairu Rejal has more than 10 years of experience in the venture capital and start-up incubation space, initially at the Nanyang Technopreneurship Center (NTC) and later at Majuven, a Singapore-based venture capital firm focused on early growth and high-tech companies in Bio-Technology, Healthcare, Clean-Sustainable Solutions and Dynamic Digital Convergences. In 2017, Khairu along with other like-minded angel investors came together to launch Rekanext Capital Partners. Currently, in Rekanext, Khairu as a Managing Partner is always looking out for start-ups across Indonesia, Malaysia as well as Philippines and Vietnam with a focus on enterprise software and deep tech verticals. He also sits on several committees of other non-profit organisations and has led initiatives in the social impact sector. LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/khairurejal/ Mr Hj Che Salmi Che Ibrahim — Advisor Che Salmi Che Ibrahim has been in the retail industry for the past 26 years. Starting with Sabasun Sdn Bhd, before it changed to its current household name; Sabasun Hyperruncit Sdn Bhd. A local entrepreneur with a global vision, at the moment he proudly owns three Sabasun hypermarkets and a warehouse, aiming to become more efficient in distributing its items. Sabasun Hyperruncit Sdn Bhd will launch the Terengganu Halal Business Centre in January 2019, which will house the first ever Sabasun Mall, Parkson, a hotel, office units, F&B outlets with a bowling alley. Under Che Salmi’s leadership and dedication, Sabasun has won the Malaysian Ministry of Domestic Trade, Co-Operatives and Consumerism’s ‘Consumer’s Choice Award’ in 2009. Che Salmi, a graduate in Psycholinguistics, is known not only for his skilful entrepreneurship, but also active in humanitarian and charity works. His Sabasun hypermarkets are famous among locals as it is able to cater the needs of the low-income earners. He is also known for organising fund-raising for people who are less fortunate in other countries like Palestine and Syria. Madam Roseta Mohd Jaafar — Advisor Roseta Mohd Jaafar started off her career in Corporate Communications with Mekar Idaman Sdn Bhd as a Senior Executive in 1997. Little did she know that she would flourish in that area and climb the corporate ladder at a rather fast pace. After Mekar Idaman, she moved to Intria Berhad as Assistant Manager before becoming Head of Corporate Communications at Opus International Consultants Limited just one year after that. Roseta then advanced her career with UEM Group Berhad, as a Manager in the Corporate Communications department. After almost 2 years there, she then took a leap of faith to become the Vice President, Head of Group Corporate Communications and Public Affairs for EON Group Berhad in 2007. Her most lustrous career to-date was her 7-year and a half stint with Al-Rajhi Bank (Malaysia), as their Vice President, Head of Corporate Communications. Now the Corporate Affairs Director at GCH Retail (M) Sdn Bhd, which owns over 120 Giant hypermarkets, 400 Guardian pharmacies and more than 16 Cold Storage supermarkets, Rosetta has in total more than 20 years’ worth of experience in Corporate Communications. She graduated from University of Leeds with BA (Honours) in TESOL and earned her Masters of Science degree in Corporate Communications from Universiti Putra Malaysia. LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/roseta-mohd-jaafar-5a75763/
1. What is Helix? Helix Cognitive Computing GmbH is a Berlin-based strategic tech company, dedicated to creating a cutting-edge digital ecosystem for interconnecting Everyone and Everything. Helix aims to challenge the status quo by eliminating the need for intermediaries and central authorities, at virtually no cost. For more information, you can visit our website at www.hlx.ai. 2. What problem is Helix solving? Helix solves problems associated with centralized systems and management. Rather than blindly relying on third-party promises, Helix builds trust by adopting public consensus mechanisms. Thus, it fosters the creation of endless new relationships and businesses that are more ‚direct‘ in nature. Helix enables the use of end-to-end encryption to emit secured data streams, implying that you can fully control which parties are authorized to access your messages or data. By eliminating intermediaries, Helix enables trustless transactions. It is no longer required to blindly trust any intermediary, whether it is a storage or financial service provider, such as banks. An example includes the creation of Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs) that are direct, peer-to-peer and organize their company through digital voting systems. This could be achieved for any organization using the HelixFramework involving no payment fees to Helix. The Helix Consensus Protocol is leveraged to achieve data integrity instead of that (for more information about the HelixTangle, please refer to the Whitepaper on our website: https://www.hlx.ai/whitepaper), i.e., transactions that have reached agreement are serialized to the ledger and are immutable. 3. What makes Helix different to others?
The Helix Consensus Protocol (HCP) enables efficient and secure transaction processing at virtually no cost, opposed to legacy blockchains.
We are building an application by the name of HelixComposer. Helix assigns great importance to usability and accessibility by providing an interface for people who do not have prior knowledge in cryptocurrencies or computer sciences. The HelixComposer and its graphical user interface provide the middle layer or rather the "interaction layer" between users and the network infrastructure. It enables interactive guidance and tools for designing own decentralized applications and defining smart contracts.
We have community service, the HelixFoundation. The HelixFoundation assures the sustainability of the HelixNetwork. The HelixNetwork consists of Nodes (Computers) executing HCP and overlay networks (such as Flash and MAM), that are leveraged to achieve greater scalability and privacy. Further, the HelixFoundation is dedicated to creating educational workshops in the realm of Distributed Ledger Technologies, as we feel a great need of educating interested people and promote young talents.
4. Is Helix an active player in the Blockchain space? Helix is active in the Distributed Ledger Technologies DLT space with its own Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network protocol – not based on Blockchain principles. The Helix Distributed Ledger is modeled as a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), a well-known data structure with excellent properties in terms of scalability. 5. What does decentralization mean? Decentralization is a term used in network topology to describe the relations between different node types. Centralized systems typically consist of a client-server architecture or slave nodes listening to a coordinator. https://i.redd.it/8pue5gmq1fg11.png Decentralization promotes the elimination of unnecessary intermediaries, from the transfer of value between persons and things. 6. What is Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)? Distributed Ledger Technology encompasses an extensive database consisting of synchronized digital records. Examples of records maintained by DLTs include monetary transactions (e.g., Bitcoin Blockchain), titles and rights to intellectual property, creative content, music, votes, healthcare records, and other sensitive or confidential material. 7. What is a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)? A Directed Acyclic Graph is a particular type of graph consisting of nodes connected to each other by directed edges. The term ‘Directed’ refers to the idea that edges have directions (like a street map), while ‘Acyclic’ implies that it is not possible to walk from a node X and return to X without going back on a previously used edge (for example no U-turns!). 8. What is a P2P Network? The architecture of most computer applications on the internet is two-tiered. In a two-tiered architecture, there is a clear division between clients and servers. For example, a typical banking application allows a client to prepare transactions on his/her local machine, and upload the transaction to the bank's centralized server or database. In contrast to the two-tiered architecture of centralized applications, P2P systems equally distribute all aspects of the application across participants, which enables workloads, resources, and values to be shared, and additionally, eliminates the need for peers to trust central authorities. 9. What is “cognition”? The word cognition derives from the Latin term cognosco which means 'to conceptualize'. Cognition can be defined as the mental act of acquiring and understanding knowledge through senses, experience, and thought. 10. What does “cognitive computing” mean? Cognitive computers imitate human intelligence by processing data with a set of rules and procedures that can be updated iteratively, based on the value of the incoming data on an asneeded basis. Cognitive computing systems can provide highly accurate descriptions of visual and linguistic data, just like humans. A developing cognitive computer system relies on machine learning strategies, and the scientific study of biological systems, including their cognitive abilities that sustain autonomous, self-driven learning. 11. How is Helix funded today and do you plan an ICO – when? Currently, Helix is funded by global private and institutional investors. In order to optimize its strategy and operations to the interest of both public (i.e. community) and professional investors, Helix decides to defer its ICO until a better perception in the markets evolves. Helix also intends to evaluate other forms of global coin distribution models where the public audience would be involved in schemes similar to Bounty Programs or Air Drops rather than an ICO. For more detailed information about ICO and Coins, please refer to the Helix ICO & Coins Quick Facts on our website: https://hlx.ai/whitepaper. 12. What is a cryptocurrency after all? A cryptocurrency is a digital means of payment created and transferred using cryptographic principles, to enable a decentralized and secure payment system. 13. What is HLX? HLX is the cryptocurrency developed by Helix Cognitive Computing. 14. Why is HLX called "Cognitive Cryptocurrency"? Every transaction initiated in the HelixTangle results from the process of cognition. Helix uses cognitive scientific methods for purposes of security and validation in the network. For example, in order to approve or validate a transaction, Helix introduces the first ever transaction ledger in the crypto world, which secures transactions using artificial intelligence techniques such as decentralized deep learning, a unique ability to understand, reason and learn about cyber-attacks and threats. 15. Who can use HLX? HLX is for everyone and everything. You do not need to create a large valued transaction to use the HelixTangle. And since there is no fee, both people and machines can attach their micro-valued transactions to the HelixTangle. Thus, the HelixTangle can be used for machineto-machine settlement, person-to-machine, or machine-to-person payments. 16. Who needs HLX? The HLX coin is the means of digital exchange in the HelixTangle. 17. How I can mine HLX and how expensive are the transaction fees? You cannot "mine" the HelixTangle because the Helix protocol does not require intermediaries like miners. The upshot is that the HelixTangle does not waste valuable resources like energy or natural space. Regarding transaction fees, there are none! 18. How are HLX created? The HLX amount was set in advance by a human council. The sum is set in advance in the code and implemented in the HelixTangle. The Total Coin Supply is calculated from (244 * 244). 19. What is the maximum number of HLX Coins that can be in circulation? Our maximum amount will be 4,292,493,394,837,504 HLX or 4,292,493,394 mHLX. We also tend to say, in short, but imprecisely: "The total supply is approximately 4,3 petaHLX". 20. What is the difference between mHLX and HLX? Because the number 4,292,493,394,837,504 HLX is rather inconvenient to use, we count in millions of HLX, calling that unit mHLX (“Mega Helix”). So the integer of the total coin supply divided by a million results in the total mHLX supply of 4,292,493,394 mHLX. 21. Is the HLX supply infinite? The HLX coin supply is finite, not infinite. In other words, there are a limited number of HLX coins. In contrast to the Keynesian economic models of most states, the HLX coin supply is not inflationary because no one can “print money” as they need it, and arbitrary coins are never generated. 22. On which exchange platforms for trading HLX will be available? To be announced after the ICO. 23. Where can I store my HLX? Once the HLX coins are prepared for transfer to third parties, you can store your HLX inside the HelixWallet software that will be provided in time for the coin transfers. 24. Is Helix' focus on the HLX coin or the Tangle? First and foremost, Helix is not about the cryptocurrency but rather a protocol for introducing next-generation technology in decentralized distributed computing. It can be said that the cryptocurrency HLX is a necessity to our peer-to-peer network. To be able to tap the full potential of the HelixTangle you need currency. It is not possible to pay with fiat money on the Tangle, and this is not a plan. 25. Is the HelixNetwork better than a Blockchain P2P network? Yes. Advantages of the HelixNetwork over traditional Blockchain P2P networks include:
Cost – Transactions in the Tangle are free of charge and occur at a far higher speed
Scalability - Transaction confirmation speed increases linearly with the numbers of tips
Decentralization – The Helix Tangle eliminates the need for mining or miners
Environmentally Friendly – e.g., No waste of electrical energy
Can be used by the emerging machine economy (=IoT and sensors).
26. Why is the Tangle faster than a Blockchain? New transactions in the Tangle confirm two previous transactions. This makes the Tangle infinitely scalable. Blockchain, on the other hand, sees several transactions packed into one block and these blocks are charged every ten minutes. 27. What is unique about the Tangle? The HLX coin can be used like any other cryptocurrency. The network protocol was specially designed to connect devices. Companies and people gather data every day with a myriad of devices such as weather sensors or sensors in machinery and healthcare. But almost every piece of information is not used or recycled. The HelixNetwork can tackle it in two ways: It can save data in a way, such that no one other than yourself has access to the data. Moreover, it allows a free transaction between the owner and the one who wants to acquire the data. While we already realize how relevant data is at present, in the future, data will play an even more significant role. 28. How is data stored in the Tangle? Suppose you want to send a JPG file to someone. First, your picture will be split into several parts and stored in a special field of various Helix transactions. To send data or communicate with someone on the HelixTangle, you store data in the shared, public version of the Tangle for a limited amount of time. When you, or someone else you authorize, retrieve the data, you are reading the data directly from the HelixTangle in its most current state. The transactions containing your data will not be removed until a snapshot, which is like sending data off into oblivion. After the data has been forgotten, all transaction objects valued at 0 are deleted from the shared, public HelixTangle. If someone would want to read your data from the HelixTangle, that would mean that they must take the precisely same walk through the graph you already did, and only then they would recover the original walk, or message, or data. To simplify this process and stay up to certain privacy requirements, we use a module called Masked Authenticated Messaging. It enables a private, public or restricted encrypted data stream, wherein the restricted scheme, for instance, a channel identifier key and a private key would be required to access the data stream. 29. Is the data stored in the Tangle or does the data only pass through the Tangle? To be certain of the correctness of your data, in other words, to achieve data integrity, it is mandatory that data is stored in the Tangle. Due to Proof of Work requirements and confirmation times, this could lead to problems in a scenario like a messaging app, where remotely instant data transfer is required. In these cases, it is recommended to use an overlay network like Flash. Flash enables the creation of a multi-signature wallet (that holds a balance predefined by the parties) by two or more parties that trust each other. Transactions in a flash channel are almost instant, with delays only associated to network propagation. When the channel is closed by the parties, the last state of the balances of the parties is synchronized to the Tangle. This procedure eliminates a lot of overhead, supports scalability of the overall system, i.e., the HelixNetwork and enables a tremendous throughput of transactions. 30. How is the data sent? You can use the interface provided in the official HelixWallet. Using the Interface, you will be able to publish data into the Tangle and restrict access to your needs. 31. What are possible use cases for the HelixTangle? To give a few examples:
Bio data platform - BEAMS (Helix' first spin-off, more information at www.beams.ai)
Supply Chain Transparency (Manufacturing)
Aircraft Maintenance, Repair, and Operations (MRO) Energy & Utilities (The era of microgrids)
Public transport (Train, bus)
Licensing (Music, movies)
Post-shipping companies (UPS, DHL)
Food Industry (Food tracking)
32. Do I need HLX to use the Tangle? It is not entirely necessary to own HLX to use the Tangle. In the future, you will be able to use the Helix Tangle to store and send your data to other people securely. 33. When will the HelixTangle / Network be available? The MainNet should be launched in Q1 of 2019. 34. How can I synchronize with Helix' progress? To keep up to date, you can follow our Social Media Accounts, or get informed through our website and Discord server. Helix is active on the following Social Media Platforms: Discord: https://discordapp.com/invite/WztYaYP Telegram: https://t.me/helixfoundation Twitter: https://twitter.com/FoundationHelix Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Helix-Foundation-874464419427146/ LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/hcc-gmbh/ Medium: https://medium.com/helix-foundation YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTC_SlcpU4V9juYkIN87rKA Bitcointalk: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=4794230.0 35. What are Helix' intentions regarding Post-Quantum-Cryptography? Helix’ proof of work is minimal which means the difference of performance between a quantum computer (QC) and a normal computer is minimal (~QC would be roughly 100 times more efficient than an average everyday computer, in blockchain a QC would be 14 billion times more efficient than a high-end mining pool). The difference is great. Helix uses Schnorr signatures, which are based on the discrete logarithm problem. It achieves high performance and privacy standards and is widely studied and accepted in the industry. The problem is it’s susceptibility to quantum computations (to be more specific Shor’s algorithm implementation on QCS). Although we see the quantum era as a massive threat to existing cryptographic methods, we are sure of the fact that certain attacks, which are currently only theoretically modeled, will need a few more years to become practical enough for sufficient incentive of an adversary. While Helix is determined to come up with solutions for the quantum era, we decide to take a route quite different from our predecessor. Instead of publishing “quantum proof” algorithms (that the scientific community hasn’t had a chance to study yet), now in a time where there is no practical QC attack, seems kind of premature. In a realm, where trust is the highest good, seems premature. The general idea is to use, what achieves the best performance and security standards today, while initiating the research needed to sustain all of the computing eras that lie ahead. 36. What Helix areas and brands are worth to know?
HelixEcosystem - All systems, users, community associated with the HelixTangle
HelixTangle - Helix’ initiated P2P network protocol (a next-generation internet)
HelixPlatform - The place for developers and community to interact with the HelixTangle
HelixWallet - Interface to manage participation in the HelixEcosystem
HelixVirtualMachine - Provides secure access to the computing power of the HelixTangle
HelixComposer - Toolkit to build your dApps (decentralized use cases)
HelixWetware - Helix’ future initiative for a DNA-based molecular storage system
HelixFoundation - the Non-Profit arm of Helix to foster HelixEcosystem and R&D
HelixCognitiveComputing - the Commercial legal entity of HelixGroup
HLX - Helix Cognitive Cryptocurrency
BEAMS - A bio data platform powered by the HelixTangle
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