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Royal Vegas Casino Canada 50 free spins bonus on jackpot games
Royal Vegas Casino Full Review Looking for free spins to Royal Vegas Casino Canada? Here you are: 50 free spins on Mega Moolah Abslolootely Mad Jackpot? In addition, get $1200 welcome offer across your first 3 payments. >>Play Free Spins Now<<
Bonuses & Promotions
We appreciate the bonus and promotional program that this casino has put together for its players for a few reasons. The first is that the site and the program are not overwhelming and packed with a reload bonus here and a reload bonus there and throw in some free spins three times a day as long as you make ten deposits a week. You know, that type of thing… Instead, there’s a standard welcome bonus package that’s nothing different than most that you’ll find through internet casinos. But, what creates some real value add opportunities are the loyalty program plus the limited time promotions. We’re going to detail the current promotion for you in just a minute but, what’s great about it is that there’s no deposit required If you’re on the site to do some betting, you can get in on the action and have some fun participating and spinning the wheel for prizes. It’s frustrating to see some great rewards up for grabs but then read the small print and find out that it’ll cost you hundreds to even get in the running, and that’s not the case here. Play your favorite game and wager as you normally would, and you’re part of the promotion. >>Play Free Spins Now<<
$1,200 Welcome Bonus Package + 50 Free Spins
New players can get in on a three-part reward that includes both a deposit match plus some free spins on three different designated slot games. That’s good news. The not quite as good news is that you have to rollover the bonus 40 times before you can cash anything out. This site offers two types of tracking, though, so you’ll need to get further clarification on meeting any wagering requirement and find out if you’re on a percentage tracking system or in protected bonus mode as it will make a difference.
The Welcome Package
#1: 100% matching bonus up to $400 plus 50 free spins on MEGA MOOLAH
#2: 100% matching bonus up to $400
#3: 100% matching bonus up to $400
Limited Time Promotions
Royal Vegas features a current promotion that runs for about a month or so, and it also provides information on past contests so new players can get a good idea of what to expect in the future. When we checked in, the current promotion was “Wild Wins” with a €300,000 instant prize pool at stake. This is the kind of bonus that we like to see because it’s not tied into a deposit requirement. Those types of things get old. You want some extra value while you’re playing instead of having to fund your player account over and over again. So, the way Wild Wins works (say that three times fast) is that you log in and play your favorite game in the casino. The more you bet, the faster you fill your progress bar with rewards points. Every time you get up to 100% on that meter, you get a spin on the jungle wheel The jungle wheel has prizes that include free spins, rewards points, or a trip to the bonus round where you can get in on the big stuff. They’re all instant prizes, and you can spin as many times as you fill that progress bar. >>Play Free Spins Now<<
Royal Vegas Rewards Program
If you’re familiar with online casino VIP programs, you’ll immediately understand this one. It’s a four-tiered club, and every new player is automatically enrolled as soon as they complete registration of their betting account. The tiers are:
Silver is the starting point and, just to get the ball rolling, new members get 2,500. From there, points are earned based on your betting, with slots providing one point for every credit bet. Some table games provide at a rate of one point per five credits but, when you get to Classic Blackjack and All Aces Video Poker, you need to do some substantial wagering. It takes 100 credits to earn one point when you play those two games. As soon as you earn 10,000 in one month, you hit the Gold status and then you’ll receive a birthday present, accelerated earnings, and a monthly loyalty bonus. Get all the way to Platinum with 75,000 points in one month, and all of those rewards are multiplied significantly. Plus, once you reach 5,000 points you can convert them to cash whenever you want. They exchange at €1 for every 1,000 points redeemed. Cash to points and points to cash.
Money Transfers – In and Out
If you’ve read some of our reviews, you may have noticed that we like full disclosure when it comes to banking. We want to see options right up front for everyone to review and not hidden behind a password so that customers need to register to find out if they can even deposit using their financial accounts. While this casino does provide a good, detailed list of all of the available financial providers that they use for deposits and withdrawals, what it doesn’t provide is accurate information on their turnaround times for processing and any fees that may be imposed. It does say that some fees may apply, and we do know that there is a minimum 24 hour waiting period before an internal approval is made on cash out requests, but that’s the extent of it. We’re putting the focus on this because cash outs with Royal Vegas are one of the most discussed topics in player forums about the casino. You will see some very complimentary comments stating they had money in hand within seven days. But, you’ll also find some people report that they went through a very lengthy withdrawal process and didn’t feel that customer service did much to help them or clarify things. Just like opinions, money issues will vary from person to person so we can’t give a definitive answer here, but you will want to keep this information in mind if you are someone who demands a quick turnaround as you may not find one through this site. >>Play Free Spins Now<<
It’s typical for a casino to have many ways to deposit and fewer withdrawal methods and that is also the case here. But, there are so many withdrawal options that the expanded “cash in” list goes on and on. Unless you are a Bitcoin user, your preferred banking method is surely on this list. The minimum deposit for all of these methods is 10. However, you can sign up with a lower minimum deposit, but then forfeit the free spins that are included in the welcome bonus package. That’s quite a list, isn’t it?! There are some other currency restrictions but just click on banking and then the deposit tab and you’ll be able to review the currency options that specifically apply to you.
There aren’t specific guidelines on payout approvals and fees. The internal approval takes a minimum of 24 hours and could take longer and then it’s in the hands of the payment processor or bank.
Visa Credit Card
Visa Debit Card
Instant Banking by Citadel
CartaSi by Moneybookers
GiroPay by Moneybookers
Solo by Moneybookers
Nordea by Moneybookers
Sofort by Moneybookers
As far as fees, we contacted customer service and were told that any charges depend on the method that you’re using. They don’t have published guidelines, so you will want to keep that in mind. We highly suggest contacting customer service and providing your country, currency, the financial method you’re selecting, and approximate transfer amount and get all of the details up front, so you’re not disappointed later.
Thumbs up to Royal Vegas for providing a great variety that includes specialty, video poker, some unusual table games, and both reel and video slots courtesy of Microgaming. Not all of them appear in the mobile casino, so specialty players need to pull up the full website version.
Audio and Video Quality
As long as you have Flash installed first, the user interface is very easy, and the quality is as good as it gets with these particular titles. We found them to be fast loading and the graphics crisp and clear.
171 games appeared for us on an Android device. While we couldn’t find the specialty games, slots, table games, video poker, and the full live casino area were all ready to go for us with a clear picture and touchscreen operation.
Slots: 350 (148 on mobile)
The slot banks are all together as there aren’t different versions separated out, but you can sort them alphabetically or search for a particular title to quickly locate your favorite. Slots can also be played in free play mode so you can try out some without risking money at the same time.
A Few of the Newer Games Include
108 Heroes – Multiplier Fortunes
Oink Country Love
You can even filter the games with a Hot and Cold designation. If you use that particular function, you’ll get a new list of games with either flames or a snowflake next to them, which is kind of a fun way to narrow down your selections.
Some of the Reel Slots
Bar Bar Black Sheep
Wheel of Wealth
And, what Microgaming is known for, those intricate video slots with amazing graphics and video, and featuring some unusual bonus games.
Jungle Jim El Dorado
Jekyll and Hyde
MegasSpin – Break da Bank Again
Game of Thrones
Wheel of Wealth – Multiplayer
When you talk about slots provided by Microgaming, the focus is usually more on the progressive jackpots as this software giant offers some of the more well-known big money games. Royal Vegas provides a running total of the current combined progressive amounts available on the site. Just in case you were wondering, it was $6.2 million when we last checked.
Mega Moolah Isis
Lots a Loot
Major Millions, Fruit Fiesta, and Lots a Loot each have two versions, a three reel and a five reel but boast the same top payout amounts.
Video Poker: 26 (seven on mobile)
It can get monotonous to talk about video poker as it’s typically not well-represented on online casinos compared to its presence in brick and mortars. When it is online, there are usually only a few of the most basic games like Jacks or Better and Deuces Wild. While this site’s video poker collection isn’t what you would call massive, there are some fun variations that we appreciate, as it gives those poor neglected poker players some choices.
Tens or Better
Deuces Wild 4 Up
Aces and Faces Poker
Deuces and Joker Power Poker
Bonus Poker Deluxe
Aces and Eights
Table Games: 50 (eight on mobile)
When you access the table game area, you’ll see 58 tables as opposed to 50 but that’s because the live dealer tables are also included, and we’re breaking them out so you can get a better picture of what this casino has to offer. A few of the “non live” options include:
Double Exposure Blackjack
Vegas Strip Blackjack Gold
Big Five Blackjack Gold
Multi Wheel Roulette Gold
Three Card Poker Gold – Single Hand
Hold ’em High Gold
European Blackjack Gold Series High Streak
Scratch Cards: 20 (zero on mobile)
Although we didn’t find any of these games on our smartphone, there are plenty of specialty type games on the full website for instant or download play.
Plunder the Sea
Offside and Seek
Dawn of the Bread
Casual Games: 33 (zero on mobile)
Another section that we couldn’t find in the mobile casino, but this casual games section has a lot of variety to it
Four by Four
Whack a Jackpot
Max Damage and the Alien Attack
Pick ‘N Switch
Live Casino: eight (eight on mobile)
Although live casino doesn’t appear in the middle menu where all of the other gaming menu items are featured, there is a live casino selection from the top menu. Oddly enough, though, when you click on it, it takes you to the main slots area. At first, we didn’t think there was a live casino, but when we headed into the table game section, there were eight live tables in action. Except for Live Dream Catcher, the tables in the in this area are provided by Evolution Gaming.
Live Dream Catcher
Private Blackjack (2)
Live Casino Hold ’em
Live Caribbean Stud Poker
Live 3 Card Poker
Contact Email: via contact form
Contact Phone (Canada): 1-866-7452416
Contact Phone (Australia): 1-800-658640
Contact Phone (other areas): different numbers per language in the contact us area
WhatsApp: +27 76 073 9635
Skype: Link on Contact Page
Live Chat: Available 24/7
We did make contact with the customer service department to clarify a few things about their banking minimums and fees. In some forums, we saw that players weren’t answered promptly, but our live chat started within one minute. The most we waited for a reply to one of the questions was three minutes. On the other hand, we weren’t overwhelmed with the quality of the responses. It was like pulling teeth to try to get an answer and, when we did, it was short and barely scratched the surface of what we asked. So, we can certainly understand the frustration that some people experienced, especially if they were trying to get information on a payout they’re owed.
When we look at a casino that features one and only one software provider, it’s difficult to be creative in our assessment. Microgaming is a top company and offers some of the best games around, so slot players who know these games already know what to expect. If you pull up the Microgaming website and look at their top “creations,” you’ll find most, if not all, of them on Royal Vegas, not to mention those big jackpot providers like Major Millions. We do like that this site offers more than just a focus on slots. The specialty games area is chock full of possibilities for people who would rather play something different. There are a lot of players who enjoy keno or bingo or scratch offs, and they’re all set as long as they play the full site version and aren’t mobile casino players. Video poker and table games are plentiful and have a good variety in addition to a suitable quantity. Evolution Gaming is behind the live dealer tables, and it’s one of the best for this type of “real person” table action, so that’s another feather in Royal Vegas’ cap. Taking a look the rest of the service, though, there are some positives and negatives. >>Play Free Spins Now<<
Jackpot City Casino is an international gaming site which includes nearly 500 online casinos, mobile casino, live dealer games, and lottery-style games. Jackpot City is compatible with desktop or mobile software, so customers can play using an Android phone, iPhone, iPad and Windows PC. Players also can bet in the web browser without a download. Jackpot Casino City is licensed by the Malta Gaming Authority and the Kahnawake Gaming Commission. Jackpot City Casino provides a $1,600 welcome bonus for new players. This cash is spread over your first 4 deposits, which makes it easy to collect the full bonus. Jackpot City accepts all major credit cards, as well as e-Wallets like Skrill and Neteller. Payouts are fast by industry standards, while every transaction use 128-bit SSL encryption technology.
Jackpot City Casino Review Summary
Jackpot City Casino is a long-established and trusted online casino. The site was launched in 1998, so it has a 20-year history of satisfying customers with cutting-edge games and reliable payouts. Though it’s old by industry standards, in our Jackpot City Casino review we noticed that it provides the trendiest games on the market today: live baccarat, roulette, and blackjack dealers. Jackpot City Casino uses Microgaming and Evolution Gaming software to present the games, so the casino has nearly 1,000 popular games. Players can play progressive slots with over $6 million in jackpots or choose from over 40 variations of blackjack and over a dozen forms of roulette. Jackpot City Live Casino has 8 different live dealer games, including two live baccarat games and two live table poker games. Mobile players can play over 150 casino games, including Microgaming’s best online blackjack and roulette. Jackpot City Casino’s mobile slots list includes some of the most popular video slots in the world, including progressive jackpot slots and licensed slots. Bonus Amount: $1,600 Platforms Supported: Microsoft and Windows. Type of Casino: Online, Download, Instant Play, Mobile. Number of games: 1,000+ >>Get Free Credits Now>>
Payment and Processing Information
Jackpot City Casino has a tremendous number of deposit and withdrawal methods. If you have a single preferred method of payment, the chances are great that Jackpot City Casino supports it. When it’s time to withdraw your winnings, JackpotCity has a pending time of a day or two. Keep in mind that individual payment methods have their own delays. Read through the expected delivery times to determine which is the best payment method for you. WITHDRAWAL
Methods: MasterCard, Visa, Visa Delta, Visa Electron, NETELLER, PayPal, Skrill, Moneta.RU, Transferencia Bancaria Local, WebMoney, ecoPayz, eKonto, Postepay, Qiwi Wallet, EntroPay, iDebit, InstaDebit, Yandex, Check/Cheque, eCheck, Courier Check, Bank Wire Transfer, Direct/Local/Fast Bank Transfers, and EFT (Wire Transfer).
Limits: $4,000 Euros per week withdrawal limit. VIP players should negotiate withdrawal terms with the cashier.
Expected Withdrawal Times:24 to 48-hour pending process.
EWallet cashouts: 24 to 48 hours.
Credit Card and Debit Cards: 2 to 6 days.
Bank Transfers 3 to 7 business days.
Cheques arrive in 14 to 21 days.
Methods: MasterCard, Maestro, Visa, Visa Delta, Visa Electron, NETELLER, PayPal, Skrill, Skrill 1-Tap, iDeal, Paysafecard, Trustly, Citadel Instant Banking, Postepay, Abaqus, Euteller, mpass, Neosurf, Pago en Efectivo, todito Cash, GiroPay, MB Multibanco, MoneySafe Prepaid Card, Qiwi Wallet, Transferencia Bancaria Local, AstroPay Card, Boleto Bancario, Przelewy24, Reverse Withdrawal Request, SEB Bank: Direct Bank Transfer, DineroMail, eps, ecoPayz, Moneta.RU, eKonto, EntroPay, iDebit, InstaDebit, WebMoney, Payforit, Teleingreso, Yandex, Bank Wire Transfer, eCheck, and Direct/Local/Fast Bank Transfers.
Limits:No deposit limits are imposed.
Expected Deposit Time: Instant. Deposits should appear in your account instantly.
VIP LEVEL WITHDRAWAL LIMITS Jackpot City Casino offers different withdrawal limits, depending on the VIP level the player attains. Jackpot City Casino’s Loyalty Programme is a 6-tier program based on the collection of loyalty points. From blue level to diamond level, each time you reach a new plateau, you’ll receive benefits, including 5% to 20% tier bonuses, personal account managers, and higher withdrawal rates. Jackpot City Casino’s Loyalty Programme accumulates points for all the Cityviews Group websites, including Spin Palace, Ruby Fortune, and Mummy’s Gold Casino. GENERAL INFORMATION
Limits Increased: Yes. The default withdrawal limit is €4,000 per week.
Jackpot City Live Casino is powered by Evolution Gaming Live, the leading live dealer provider in the online casino industry. Jackpot City Casino Live features 8 different table games. The list includes multiple tables of Live Blackjack, Live Baccarat, and Live Roulette, so players can bet at limits appropriate to their bankroll. Players also can play live dealer versions 3-Card Poker, Caribbean Stud, Ultimate Texas Hold’em, Dream Catcher, and Baccarat Squeeze.
Live Dealer Blackjack
In the live dealer blackjack tables, players will be able to find two types of blackjack variants: Classic Blackjack and Party Blackjack.
Available Blackjack Tables: Only 2 tables, each with 7 seats, but has the “Bet Behind” feature, meaning you can bet on other players’ hands until you’re seated.
Betting Limits: £/€/$25 to £/€/$300
Live Dealer Roulette
Classic European Roulette, French Roulette, Double Ball Roulette, Speed Roulette, Dual Play Roulette, and Mini Roulette. Live dealer tables have multiple camera angles, so you get the action you want in real-time.
Available Roulette Tables: 24 in total, but the number of open tables depends on the time of day.
Betting Limits in General: £/€/$10 to £/€/$500
Live Dealer Baccarat
Playing live dealer games eliminates the need for random number generators and video simulations. This is the way baccarat is meant to be played, with real card decks. Players will be able to find live dealer Punto Banco and Baccarat Squeeze at Jackpot City Casino.
Available Baccarat Tables: 35
Betting Limits: £/€/$1 to £/€/$500
Live Dealer Poker
At Jackpot City, players will be able to find three types of live dealer poker, including Three Card Poker, Caribbean Stud Poker, Live Ultimate Texas Hold’em Poker. In live dealer, poker gamblers have the easy controls and hand histories, combined with the camaraderie and excitement of real-life poker casino gaming.
Available Poker Tables?: 1
Betting Limits: £/€/$1 to £/€/$1000
Live Dream Catcher
Dream Catcher is a spinning wheel game. Live hostesses spin a wheel of fortune with various prizes on the wheel. If you play slot machines a lot, then Dream Catcher is similar to the U-Spin bonus games on a Bally Technologies slots or IGT’s Wheel of Fortune bonus game.
JackpotCity Casino has a $1,600 deposit bonus, a bitcoin bonus, daily and weekly bonuses, and a loyalty program fit for penny players and high rollers alike. JackpotCity Casino’s bonuses and promotions are competitive with other international online casinos. The first bonus you’ll receive is realistic, while the rollover requirements are better than most online casinos. Players even are allowed to play blackjack and video poker to satisfy the wagering requirements.
$1,600 Deposit Bonus
The main deposit bonus at JackpotCity Casino is $1,600. This welcome bonus offers 100% up to $400 on your first four deposits, making it an attainable offer which many customers should have a realistic chance of maxing out. The playthrough requirement is 50x the bonus. Games that have wagering requirements:
Games excluded from the wagering requirement are Craps, Baccarat, Table Poker, Casino War, Red Dog, and Sic Bo.
The Deal-a-Day Bonus renews every 24 hours. On your first deposit of the day, no matter what day of the week it is, you’ll receive a special deposit bonus. These deals change all the time, but there are several important things to remember:
You receive a bonus anytime you make a single deposit in the day.
If you plan to make one deposit in a week, check the current Deal-a-Day bonus list to see which daily bonus you prefer.
If you plan to make multiple bonuses in a day, make sure your first deposit of the day is the biggest, because that’s when you’ll get the biggest advantages.
JackpotCity Casino also has country-specific bonuses, birthday bonuses, and special holiday bonuses. Again, these are tailored to fit your country of residence, so it’s impossible in a short space to list all the promotions. Most of these are unannounced giveaways. When you sign up, ask the Jackpot City cashier about special bonuses.
Jackpot City VIP Club
The Jackpot City VIP Club has a number of advantages, including tier bonuses at 5 different levels and the ability to trade loyalty points for cash. You can use loyalty points to buy freerolls into lucrative tournaments. To advance to the next VIP level, you’ll need to accumulate loyalty points. Every 10 credits you receive become 2 to 3 Loyalty Points, depending on the types of games you’re playing. Slots, keno, and scratchcards are worth 3 loyalty points, while most table games and video poker games are worth 2 loyalty points. Players receive auction points alongside loyalty points, which can be used to bid on Jackpot City Casino merchandise. >>Get Free Credits Now>>
Games Offered at Jackpot City Casino
Jackpot City Casino has a comprehensive set of online casinos games. Microgaming designed all the online slots, video poker, and table games, so the list of online blackjack and roulette is huge. Microgaming has one of the largest collections of slots titles, with over 400 video slots. That includes licensed slots with real clips and soundbites from famous pop culture franchises, along with a long list of progressive jackpot slots. The current biggest jackpot on a JackpotCity Casino progressive slot is over $6 million.
Players receive can play several dozen table games at Jackpot City Casino, including multiple versions of baccarat, blackjack, and roulette. Fourteen variations of roulette are available, including European Roulette, American Roulette, and French Roulette. Most versions of roulette include gold series titles with enhanced graphics, while several have VIP and high limit versions for those who prefer high stakes roulette.
Pai Gow Poker
European Roulette Gold
European Roulette Gold High Limit
European Roulette Gold VIP
French Roulette Gold
French Roulette Gold VIP
Multi Wheel European Roulette Gold
Progressive Roulette Royale
Bank Buster Roulette
Premier Roulette Diamond Edition
I’ve separated JackpotCity Casino’s list of blackjack games, because it’s notable how many variations are available. If you’re a blackjack player, you can play almost any version of blackjack you prefer. The list includes Atlantic City Blackjack, which has a return-to-player of 99.74%. You can play European Blackjack Gold or High Streak Euro Blackjack, which have RTPs in the 99.60% to 99.65% range. If you study the basic strategy charts for those blackjack variants in order to receive the optimal house edge, you can stretch your bankroll at Jackpot City Casino blackjack like few other online casinos. Sign up today to try JackpotCity Casino’s blackjack games.
Atlantic City Blackjack Gold
Bonus Blackjack Gold
Double Exposure Blackjack Gold
High Streak European Blackjack Gold
Big 5 Blackjack Gold
Big 5 Blackjack Multi Hand Gold
European Blackjack Gold
Hi/Lo 13 European Blackjack Gold
Premier Hi/Lo 13 Euro Blackjack Gold
Spanish 21 Blackjack
Multi-Hand Spanish 21 Blackjack Gold
Multi-and Vegas Downtown Blackjack Gold
High Stakes Blackjack
High Stakes Blackjack Gold
Multi Hand Atlantic City Blackjack Gold
Multi Hand Atlantic City Blackjack Gold VIP
Multi Hand European Black Jack Gold Series
Multiplayer Blackjack Gold
Premier Multi Hand European Blackjack Gold
Premier High Streak Euro Blackjack Gold
Blackjack City Casino’s video poker selection includes the essential video poker games, including Jacks or Better, Deuces Wild, and All Aces. All Aces is the version of video poker not included in the wagering requirements, meaning All Aces is considered quite advantageous for the player. Once again, you’ll need to study All Aces video poker strategy charts to optimize your play.
All Aces Poker
Jacks or Better Video Poker
Aces and Faces Poker
Deuces Wild Poker
Tens or Better Poker
Double Double Bonus Poker
Microgaming online casinos tend to have a huge number of 3-reel, 5-reel, and even 7-reel video slots. Jackpot City Casino is no different. JackpotCity contains the best progressive video slots from Microgaming and licensed slot machines. JackpotCity Casino also has popular real money online slots like Break da Bank, Lotsaloot, and Rhyming Reels — which all have produced whole series of games, due to their popularity with fans. Online slots fans can spend a lifetime trying out JackpotCity Casino slots, so get started today.
Mega Moolah (Progressive)
Major Millions (Progressive)
Treasure Nile (Progressive)
The Dark Knight (Progressive)
The Lord of the Rings (Progressive)
Girls with Guns: Jungle Heat
Break da Bank
Wheel of Wealth
Specialty games is a catch-all category for the games you might not find in a brick-and-mortar casino. The list includes lottery and raffle-style games like real money keno. It also includes arcade games, including what casinos sometimes call “amusement with prizes”. JackpotCity Casino has examples of lotto games and arcade games. The site also has games based on Ludo, a cross-and-circle game which is similar to Parcheesi (India: Pachisi) or Sorry. Several are excellent mini-games for bettors who enjoy poker or sports betting.
Jackpot City Casino has a huge selection of games, so any online casino bettor should be satisfied. Online slots players have hundreds of options, including some of the biggest progressive jackpot slots on the Internet. Those who like licensed slots can play world famous games, while old school players who like 3-reel classics should be satisfied. Table game players should be thrilled with the selection, especially if they play Roulette or Blackjack. The video poker category leaves a little something to be desired, but all the essential video poker games are available. The specialty games list is full of surprises. The VIP player rewards program provides big cashback bonuses and rewards points with several advantages. Jackpot City Casino is one of our recommended online casinos, so sign up, deposit, and play at Jackpot City casino to enjoy hundreds of slots and all the top table games. Whether you enjoy online or live dealer casino games, Jackpot City Casino is your choice. And if you’ve never tried Evolution Gaming live dealer games, sign up and test your skill at one of Jackpot City Casino’s great live dealer tables.
Summary: Everyone knows that when you give your assets to someone else, they always keep them safe. If this is true for individuals, it is certainly true for businesses. Custodians always tell the truth and manage funds properly. They won't have any interest in taking the assets as an exchange operator would. Auditors tell the truth and can't be misled. That's because organizations that are regulated are incapable of lying and don't make mistakes. First, some background. Here is a summary of how custodians make us more secure: Previously, we might give Alice our crypto assets to hold. There were risks:
Alice might take the assets and disappear.
Alice might spend the assets and pretend that she still has them (fractional model).
Alice might store the assets insecurely and they'll get stolen.
Alice might give the assets to someone else by mistake or by force.
Alice might lose access to the assets.
But "no worries", Alice has a custodian named Bob. Bob is dressed in a nice suit. He knows some politicians. And he drives a Porsche. "So you have nothing to worry about!". And look at all the benefits we get:
Alice can't take the assets and disappear (unless she asks Bob or never gives them to Bob).
Alice can't spend the assets and pretend that she still has them. (Unless she didn't give them to Bob or asks him for them.)
Alice can't store the assets insecurely so they get stolen. (After all - she doesn't have any control over the withdrawal process from any of Bob's systems, right?)
Alice can't give the assets to someone else by mistake or by force. (Bob will stop her, right Bob?)
Alice can't lose access to the funds. (She'll always be present, sane, and remember all secrets, right?)
See - all problems are solved! All we have to worry about now is:
Bob might take the assets and disappear.
Bob might spend the assets and pretend that he still has them (fractional model).
Bob might store the assets insecurely and they'll get stolen.
Bob might give the assets to someone else by mistake or by force.
Bob might lose access to the assets.
It's pretty simple. Before we had to trust Alice. Now we only have to trust Alice, Bob, and all the ways in which they communicate. Just think of how much more secure we are! "On top of that", Bob assures us, "we're using a special wallet structure". Bob shows Alice a diagram. "We've broken the balance up and store it in lots of smaller wallets. That way", he assures her, "a thief can't take it all at once". And he points to a historic case where a large sum was taken "because it was stored in a single wallet... how stupid". "Very early on, we used to have all the crypto in one wallet", he said, "and then one Christmas a hacker came and took it all. We call him the Grinch. Now we individually wrap each crypto and stick it under a binary search tree. The Grinch has never been back since." "As well", Bob continues, "even if someone were to get in, we've got insurance. It covers all thefts and even coercion, collusion, and misplaced keys - only subject to the policy terms and conditions." And with that, he pulls out a phone-book sized contract and slams it on the desk with a thud. "Yep", he continues, "we're paying top dollar for one of the best policies in the country!" "Can I read it?' Alice asks. "Sure," Bob says, "just as soon as our legal team is done with it. They're almost through the first chapter." He pauses, then continues. "And can you believe that sales guy Mike? He has the same year Porsche as me. I mean, what are the odds?" "Do you use multi-sig?", Alice asks. "Absolutely!" Bob replies. "All our engineers are fully trained in multi-sig. Whenever we want to set up a new wallet, we generate 2 separate keys in an air-gapped process and store them in this proprietary system here. Look, it even requires the biometric signature from one of our team members to initiate any withdrawal." He demonstrates by pressing his thumb into the display. "We use a third-party cloud validation API to match the thumbprint and authorize each withdrawal. The keys are also backed up daily to an off-site third-party." "Wow that's really impressive," Alice says, "but what if we need access for a withdrawal outside of office hours?" "Well that's no issue", Bob says, "just send us an email, call, or text message and we always have someone on staff to help out. Just another part of our strong commitment to all our customers!" "What about Proof of Reserve?", Alice asks. "Of course", Bob replies, "though rather than publish any blockchain addresses or signed transaction, for privacy we just do a SHA256 refactoring of the inverse hash modulus for each UTXO nonce and combine the smart contract coefficient consensus in our hyperledger lightning node. But it's really simple to use." He pushes a button and a large green checkmark appears on a screen. "See - the algorithm ran through and reserves are proven." "Wow", Alice says, "you really know your stuff! And that is easy to use! What about fiat balances?" "Yeah, we have an auditor too", Bob replies, "Been using him for a long time so we have quite a strong relationship going! We have special books we give him every year and he's very efficient! Checks the fiat, crypto, and everything all at once!" "We used to have a nice offline multi-sig setup we've been using without issue for the past 5 years, but I think we'll move all our funds over to your facility," Alice says. "Awesome", Bob replies, "Thanks so much! This is perfect timing too - my Porsche got a dent on it this morning. We have the paperwork right over here." "Great!", Alice replies. And with that, Alice gets out her pen and Bob gets the contract. "Don't worry", he says, "you can take your crypto-assets back anytime you like - just subject to our cancellation policy. Our annual management fees are also super low and we don't adjust them often". How many holes have to exist for your funds to get stolen? Just one. Why are we taking a powerful offline multi-sig setup, widely used globally in hundreds of different/lacking regulatory environments with 0 breaches to date, and circumventing it by a demonstrably weak third party layer? And paying a great expense to do so? If you go through the list of breaches in the past 2 years to highly credible organizations, you go through the list of major corporate frauds (only the ones we know about), you go through the list of all the times platforms have lost funds, you go through the list of times and ways that people have lost their crypto from identity theft, hot wallet exploits, extortion, etc... and then you go through this custodian with a fine-tooth comb and truly believe they have value to add far beyond what you could, sticking your funds in a wallet (or set of wallets) they control exclusively is the absolute worst possible way to take advantage of that security. The best way to add security for crypto-assets is to make a stronger multi-sig. With one custodian, what you are doing is giving them your cryptocurrency and hoping they're honest, competent, and flawlessly secure. It's no different than storing it on a really secure exchange. Maybe the insurance will cover you. Didn't work for Bitpay in 2015. Didn't work for Yapizon in 2017. Insurance has never paid a claim in the entire history of cryptocurrency. But maybe you'll get lucky. Maybe your exact scenario will buck the trend and be what they're willing to cover. After the large deductible and hopefully without a long and expensive court battle. And you want to advertise this increase in risk, the lapse of judgement, an accident waiting to happen, as though it's some kind of benefit to customers ("Free institutional-grade storage for your digital assets.")? And then some people are writing to the OSC that custodians should be mandatory for all funds on every exchange platform? That this somehow will make Canadians as a whole more secure or better protected compared with standard air-gapped multi-sig? On what planet? Most of the problems in Canada stemmed from one thing - a lack of transparency. If Canadians had known what a joke Quadriga was - it wouldn't have grown to lose $400m from hard-working Canadians from coast to coast to coast. And Gerald Cotten would be in jail, not wherever he is now (at best, rotting peacefully). EZ-BTC and mister Dave Smilie would have been a tiny little scam to his friends, not a multi-million dollar fraud. Einstein would have got their act together or been shut down BEFORE losing millions and millions more in people's funds generously donated to criminals. MapleChange wouldn't have even been a thing. And maybe we'd know a little more about CoinTradeNewNote - like how much was lost in there. Almost all of the major losses with cryptocurrency exchanges involve deception with unbacked funds. So it's great to see transparency reports from BitBuy and ShakePay where someone independently verified the backing. The only thing we don't have is:
ANY CERTAINTY BALANCES WEREN'T EXCLUDED. Quadriga's largest account was $70m. 80% of funds are in 20% of accounts (Pareto principle). All it takes is excluding a few really large accounts - and nobody's the wiser. A fractional platform can easily pass any audit this way.
ANY VISIBILITY WHATSOEVER INTO THE CUSTODIANS. BitBuy put out their report before moving all the funds to their custodian and ShakePay apparently can't even tell us who the custodian is. That's pretty important considering that basically all of the funds are now stored there.
ANY IDEA ABOUT THE OTHER EXCHANGES. In order for this to be effective, it has to be the norm. It needs to be "unusual" not to know. If obscurity is the norm, then it's super easy for people like Gerald Cotten and Dave Smilie to blend right in.
It's not complicated to validate cryptocurrency assets. They need to exist, they need to be spendable, and they need to cover the total balances. There are plenty of credible people and firms across the country that have the capacity to reasonably perform this validation. Having more frequent checks by different, independent, parties who publish transparent reports is far more valuable than an annual check by a single "more credible/official" party who does the exact same basic checks and may or may not publish anything. Here's an example set of requirements that could be mandated:
First report within 1 month of launching, another within 3 months, and further reports at minimum every 6 months thereafter.
No auditor can be repeated within a 12 month period.
All reports must be public, identifying the auditor and the full methodology used.
All auditors must be independent of the firm being audited with no conflict of interest.
Reports must include the percentage of each asset backed, and how it's backed.
The auditor publishes a hash list, which lists a hash of each customer's information and balances that were included. Hash is one-way encryption so privacy is fully preserved. Every customer can use this to have 100% confidence they were included.
If we want more extensive requirements on audits, these should scale upward based on the total assets at risk on the platform, and whether the platform has loaned their assets out.
There are ways to structure audits such that neither crypto assets nor customer information are ever put at risk, and both can still be properly validated and publicly verifiable. There are also ways to structure audits such that they are completely reasonable for small platforms and don't inhibit innovation in any way. By making the process as reasonable as possible, we can completely eliminate any reason/excuse that an honest platform would have for not being audited. That is arguable far more important than any incremental improvement we might get from mandating "the best of the best" accountants. Right now we have nothing mandated and tons of Canadians using offshore exchanges with no oversight whatsoever. Transparency does not prove crypto assets are safe. CoinTradeNewNote, Flexcoin ($600k), and Canadian Bitcoins ($100k) are examples where crypto-assets were breached from platforms in Canada. All of them were online wallets and used no multi-sig as far as any records show. This is consistent with what we see globally - air-gapped multi-sig wallets have an impeccable record, while other schemes tend to suffer breach after breach. We don't actually know how much CoinTrader lost because there was no visibility. Rather than publishing details of what happened, the co-founder of CoinTrader silently moved on to found another platform - the "most trusted way to buy and sell crypto" - a site that has no information whatsoever (that I could find) on the storage practices and a FAQ advising that “[t]rading cryptocurrency is completely safe” and that having your own wallet is “entirely up to you! You can certainly keep cryptocurrency, or fiat, or both, on the app.” Doesn't sound like much was learned here, which is really sad to see. It's not that complicated or unreasonable to set up a proper hardware wallet. Multi-sig can be learned in a single course. Something the equivalent complexity of a driver's license test could prevent all the cold storage exploits we've seen to date - even globally. Platform operators have a key advantage in detecting and preventing fraud - they know their customers far better than any custodian ever would. The best job that custodians can do is to find high integrity individuals and train them to form even better wallet signatories. Rather than mandating that all platforms expose themselves to arbitrary third party risks, regulations should center around ensuring that all signatories are background-checked, properly trained, and using proper procedures. We also need to make sure that signatories are empowered with rights and responsibilities to reject and report fraud. They need to know that they can safely challenge and delay a transaction - even if it turns out they made a mistake. We need to have an environment where mistakes are brought to the surface and dealt with. Not one where firms and people feel the need to hide what happened. In addition to a knowledge-based test, an auditor can privately interview each signatory to make sure they're not in coercive situations, and we should make sure they can freely and anonymously report any issues without threat of retaliation. A proper multi-sig has each signature held by a separate person and is governed by policies and mutual decisions instead of a hierarchy. It includes at least one redundant signature. For best results, 3of4, 3of5, 3of6, 4of5, 4of6, 4of7, 5of6, or 5of7. History has demonstrated over and over again the risk of hot wallets even to highly credible organizations. Nonetheless, many platforms have hot wallets for convenience. While such losses are generally compensated by platforms without issue (for example Poloniex, Bitstamp, Bitfinex, Gatecoin, Coincheck, Bithumb, Zaif, CoinBene, Binance, Bitrue, Bitpoint, Upbit, VinDAX, and now KuCoin), the public tends to focus more on cases that didn't end well. Regardless of what systems are employed, there is always some level of risk. For that reason, most members of the public would prefer to see third party insurance. Rather than trying to convince third party profit-seekers to provide comprehensive insurance and then relying on an expensive and slow legal system to enforce against whatever legal loopholes they manage to find each and every time something goes wrong, insurance could be run through multiple exchange operators and regulators, with the shared interest of having a reputable industry, keeping costs down, and taking care of Canadians. For example, a 4 of 7 multi-sig insurance fund held between 5 independent exchange operators and 2 regulatory bodies. All Canadian exchanges could pay premiums at a set rate based on their needed coverage, with a higher price paid for hot wallet coverage (anything not an air-gapped multi-sig cold wallet). Such a model would be much cheaper to manage, offer better coverage, and be much more reliable to payout when needed. The kind of coverage you could have under this model is unheard of. You could even create something like the CDIC to protect Canadians who get their trading accounts hacked if they can sufficiently prove the loss is legitimate. In cases of fraud, gross negligence, or insolvency, the fund can be used to pay affected users directly (utilizing the last transparent balance report in the worst case), something which private insurance would never touch. While it's recommended to have official policies for coverage, a model where members vote would fully cover edge cases. (Could be similar to the Supreme Court where justices vote based on case law.) Such a model could fully protect all Canadians across all platforms. You can have a fiat coverage governed by legal agreements, and crypto-asset coverage governed by both multi-sig and legal agreements. It could be practical, affordable, and inclusive. Now, we are at a crossroads. We can happily give up our freedom, our innovation, and our money. We can pay hefty expenses to auditors, lawyers, and regulators year after year (and make no mistake - this cost will grow to many millions or even billions as the industry grows - and it will be borne by all Canadians on every platform because platforms are not going to eat up these costs at a loss). We can make it nearly impossible for any new platform to enter the marketplace, forcing Canadians to use the same stagnant platforms year after year. We can centralize and consolidate the entire industry into 2 or 3 big players and have everyone else fail (possibly to heavy losses of users of those platforms). And when a flawed security model doesn't work and gets breached, we can make it even more complicated with even more people in suits making big money doing the job that blockchain was supposed to do in the first place. We can build a system which is so intertwined and dependent on big government, traditional finance, and central bankers that it's future depends entirely on that of the fiat system, of fractional banking, and of government bail-outs. If we choose this path, as history has shown us over and over again, we can not go back, save for revolution. Our children and grandchildren will still be paying the consequences of what we decided today. Or, we can find solutions that work. We can maintain an open and innovative environment while making the adjustments we need to make to fully protect Canadian investors and cryptocurrency users, giving easy and affordable access to cryptocurrency for all Canadians on the platform of their choice, and creating an environment in which entrepreneurs and problem solvers can bring those solutions forward easily. None of the above precludes innovation in any way, or adds any unreasonable cost - and these three policies would demonstrably eliminate or resolve all 109 historic cases as studied here - that's every single case researched so far going back to 2011. It includes every loss that was studied so far not just in Canada but globally as well. Unfortunately, finding answers is the least challenging part. Far more challenging is to get platform operators and regulators to agree on anything. My last post got no response whatsoever, and while the OSC has told me they're happy for industry feedback, I believe my opinion alone is fairly meaningless. This takes the whole community working together to solve. So please let me know your thoughts. Please take the time to upvote and share this with people. Please - let's get this solved and not leave it up to other people to do. Facts/background/sources (skip if you like):
The inspiration for the paragraph about splitting wallets was an actual quote from a Canadian company providing custodial services in response to the OSC consultation paper: "We believe that it will be in the in best interests of investors to prohibit pooled crypto assets or ‘floats’. Most Platforms pool assets, citing reasons of practicality and expense. The recent hack of the world’s largest Platform – Binance – demonstrates the vulnerability of participants’ assets when such concessions are made. In this instance, the Platform’s entire hot wallet of Bitcoins, worth over $40 million, was stolen, facilitated in part by the pooling of client crypto assets." "the maintenance of participants (and Platform) crypto assets across multiple wallets distributes the related risk and responsibility of security - reducing the amount of insurance coverage required and making insurance coverage more readily obtainable". For the record, their reply also said nothing whatsoever about multi-sig or offline storage.
In addition to the fact that the $40m hack represented only one "hot wallet" of Binance, and they actually had the vast majority of assets in other wallets (including mostly cold wallets), multiple real cases have clearly demonstrated that risk is still present with multiple wallets. Bitfinex, VinDAX, Bithumb, Altsbit, BitPoint, Cryptopia, and just recently KuCoin all had multiple wallets breached all at the same time, and may represent a significantly larger impact on customers than the Binance breach which was fully covered by Binance. To represent that simply having multiple separate wallets under the same security scheme is a comprehensive way to reduce risk is just not true.
Private insurance has historically never covered a single loss in the cryptocurrency space (at least, not one that I was able to find), and there are notable cases where massive losses were not covered by insurance. Bitpay in 2015 and Yapizon in 2017 both had insurance policies that didn't pay out during the breach, even after a lengthly court process. The same insurance that ShakePay is presently using (and announced to much fanfare) was describe by their CEO himself as covering “physical theft of the media where the private keys are held,” which is something that has never historically happened. As was said with regard to the same policy in 2018 - “I don’t find it surprising that Lloyd’s is in this space,” said Johnson, adding that to his mind the challenge for everybody is figuring out how to structure these policies so that they are actually protective. “You can create an insurance policy that protects no one – you know there are so many caveats to the policy that it’s not super protective.”
The most profitable policy for a private insurance company is one with the most expensive premiums that they never have to pay a claim on. They have no inherent incentive to take care of people who lost funds. It's "cheaper" to take the reputational hit and fight the claim in court. The more money at stake, the more the insurance provider is incentivized to avoid payout. They're not going to insure the assets unless they have reasonable certainty to make a profit by doing so, and they're not going to pay out a massive sum unless it's legally forced. Private insurance is always structured to be maximally profitable to the insurance provider.
The circumvention of multi-sig was a key factor in the massive Bitfinex hack of over $60m of bitcoin, which today still sits being slowly used and is worth over $3b. While Bitfinex used a qualified custodian Bitgo, which was and still is active and one of the industry leaders of custodians, and they set up 2 of 3 multi-sig wallets, the entire system was routed through Bitfinex, such that Bitfinex customers could initiate the withdrawals in a "hot" fashion. This feature was also a hit with the hacker. The multi-sig was fully circumvented.
Bitpay in 2015 was another example of a breach that stole 5,000 bitcoins. This happened not through the exploit of any system in Bitpay, but because the CEO of a company they worked with got their computer hacked and the hackers were able to request multiple bitcoin purchases, which Bitpay honoured because they came from the customer's computer legitimately. Impersonation is a very common tactic used by fraudsters, and methods get more extreme all the time.
A notable case in Canada was the Canadian Bitcoins exploit. Funds were stored on a server in a Rogers Data Center, and the attendee was successfully convinced to reboot the server "in safe mode" with a simple phone call, thus bypassing the extensive security and enabling the theft.
The very nature of custodians circumvents multi-sig. This is because custodians are not just having to secure the assets against some sort of physical breach but against any form of social engineering, modification of orders, fraudulent withdrawal attempts, etc... If the security practices of signatories in a multi-sig arrangement are such that the breach risk of one signatory is 1 in 100, the requirement of 3 independent signatures makes the risk of theft 1 in 1,000,000. Since hackers tend to exploit the weakest link, a comparable custodian has to make the entry and exit points of their platform 10,000 times more secure than one of those signatories to provide equivalent protection. And if the signatories beef up their security by only 10x, the risk is now 1 in 1,000,000,000. The custodian has to be 1,000,000 times more secure. The larger and more complex a system is, the more potential vulnerabilities exist in it, and the fewer people can understand how the system works when performing upgrades. Even if a system is completely secure today, one has to also consider how that system might evolve over time or work with different members.
By contrast, offline multi-signature solutions have an extremely solid record, and in the entire history of cryptocurrency exchange incidents which I've studied (listed here), there has only been one incident (796 exchange in 2015) involving an offline multi-signature wallet. It happened because the customer's bitcoin address was modified by hackers, and the amount that was stolen ($230k) was immediately covered by the exchange operators. Basically, the platform operators were tricked into sending a legitimate withdrawal request to the wrong address because hackers exploited their platform to change that address. Such an issue would not be prevented in any way by the use of a custodian, as that custodian has no oversight whatsoever to the exchange platform. It's practical for all exchange operators to test large withdrawal transactions as a general policy, regardless of what model is used, and general best practice is to diagnose and fix such an exploit as soon as it occurs.
False promises on the backing of funds played a huge role in the downfall of Quadriga, and it's been exposed over and over again (MyCoin, PlusToken, Bitsane, Bitmarket, EZBTC, IDAX). Even today, customers have extremely limited certainty on whether their funds in exchanges are actually being backed or how they're being backed. While this issue is not unique to cryptocurrency exchanges, the complexity of the technology and the lack of any regulation or standards makes problems more widespread, and there is no "central bank" to come to the rescue as in the 2008 financial crisis or during the great depression when "9,000 banks failed".
In addition to fraudulent operations, the industry is full of cases where operators have suffered breaches and not reported them. Most recently, Einstein was the largest case in Canada, where ongoing breaches and fraud were perpetrated against the platform for multiple years and nobody found out until the platform collapsed completely. While fraud and breaches suck to deal with, they suck even more when not dealt with. Lack of visibility played a role in the largest downfalls of Mt. Gox, Cryptsy, and Bitgrail. In some cases, platforms are alleged to have suffered a hack and keep operating without admitting it at all, such as CoinBene.
It surprises some to learn that a cryptographic solution has already existed since 2013, and gained widespread support in 2014 after Mt. Gox. Proof of Reserves is a full cryptographic proof that allows any customer using an exchange to have complete certainty that their crypto-assets are fully backed by the platform in real-time. This is accomplished by proving that assets exist on the blockchain, are spendable, and fully cover customer deposits. It does not prove safety of assets or backing of fiat assets.
If we didn't care about privacy at all, a platform could publish their wallet addresses, sign a partial transaction, and put the full list of customer information and balances out publicly. Customers can each check that they are on the list, that the balances are accurate, that the total adds up, and that it's backed and spendable on the blockchain. Platforms who exclude any customer take a risk because that customer can easily check and see they were excluded. So together with all customers checking, this forms a full proof of backing of all crypto assets.
However, obviously customers care about their private information being published. Therefore, a hash of the information can be provided instead. Hash is one-way encryption. The hash allows the customer to validate inclusion (by hashing their own known information), while anyone looking at the list of hashes cannot determine the private information of any other user. All other parts of the scheme remain fully intact. A model like this is in use on the exchange CoinFloor in the UK.
A Merkle tree can provide even greater privacy. Instead of a list of balances, the balances are arranged into a binary tree. A customer starts from their node, and works their way to the top of the tree. For example, they know they have 5 BTC, they plus 1 other customer hold 7 BTC, they plus 2-3 other customers hold 17 BTC, etc... until they reach the root where all the BTC are represented. Thus, there is no way to find the balances of other individual customers aside from one unidentified customer in this case.
Proposals such as this had the backing of leaders in the community including Nic Carter, Greg Maxwell, and Zak Wilcox. Substantial and significant effort started back in 2013, with massive popularity in 2014. But what became of that effort? Very little. Exchange operators continue to refuse to give visibility. Despite the fact this information can often be obtained through trivial blockchain analysis, no Canadian platform has ever provided any wallet addresses publicly. As described by the CEO of Newton "For us to implement some kind of realtime Proof of Reserves solution, which I'm not opposed to, it would have to ... Preserve our users' privacy, as well as our own. Some kind of zero-knowledge proof". Kraken describes here in more detail why they haven't implemented such a scheme. According to professor Eli Ben-Sasson, when he spoke with exchanges, none were interested in implementing Proof of Reserves.
And yet, Kraken's places their reasoning on a page called "Proof of Reserves". More recently, both BitBuy and ShakePay have released reports titled "Proof of Reserves and Security Audit". Both reports contain disclaimers against being audits. Both reports trust the customer list provided by the platform, leaving the open possibility that multiple large accounts could have been excluded from the process. Proof of Reserves is a blockchain validation where customers see the wallets on the blockchain. The report from Kraken is 5 years old, but they leave it described as though it was just done a few weeks ago. And look at what they expect customers to do for validation. When firms represent something being "Proof of Reserve" when it's not, this is like a farmer growing fruit with pesticides and selling it in a farmers market as organic produce - except that these are people's hard-earned life savings at risk here. Platforms are misrepresenting the level of visibility in place and deceiving the public by their misuse of this term. They haven't proven anything.
Fraud isn't a problem that is unique to cryptocurrency. Fraud happens all the time. Enron, WorldCom, Nortel, Bear Stearns, Wells Fargo, Moser Baer, Wirecard, Bre-X, and Nicola are just some of the cases where frauds became large enough to become a big deal (and there are so many countless others). These all happened on 100% reversible assets despite regulations being in place. In many of these cases, the problems happened due to the over-complexity of the financial instruments. For example, Enron had "complex financial statements [which] were confusing to shareholders and analysts", creating "off-balance-sheet vehicles, complex financing structures, and deals so bewildering that few people could understand them". In cryptocurrency, we are often combining complex financial products with complex technologies and verification processes. We are naïve if we think problems like this won't happen. It is awkward and uncomfortable for many people to admit that they don't know how something works. If we want "money of the people" to work, the solutions have to be simple enough that "the people" can understand them, not so confusing that financial professionals and technology experts struggle to use or understand them.
For those who question the extent to which an organization can fool their way into a security consultancy role, HB Gary should be a great example to look at. Prior to trying to out anonymous, HB Gary was being actively hired by multiple US government agencies and others in the private sector (with glowing testimonials). The published articles and hosted professional security conferences. One should also look at this list of data breaches from the past 2 years. Many of them are large corporations, government entities, and technology companies. These are the ones we know about. Undoubtedly, there are many more that we do not know about. If HB Gary hadn't been "outted" by anonymous, would we have known they were insecure? If the same breach had happened outside of the public spotlight, would it even have been reported? Or would HB Gary have just deleted the Twitter posts, brought their site back up, done a couple patches, and kept on operating as though nothing had happened?
In the case of Quadriga, the facts are clear. Despite past experience with platforms such as MapleChange in Canada and others around the world, no guidance or even the most basic of a framework was put in place by regulators. By not clarifying any sort of legal framework, regulators enabled a situation where a platform could be run by former criminal Mike Dhanini/Omar Patryn, and where funds could be held fully unchecked by one person. At the same time, the lack of regulation deterred legitimate entities from running competing platforms and Quadriga was granted a money services business license for multiple years of operation, which gave the firm the appearance of legitimacy. Regulators did little to protect Canadians despite Quadriga failing to file taxes from 2016 onward. The entire administrative team had resigned and this was public knowledge. Many people had suspicions of what was going on, including Ryan Mueller, who forwarded complaints to the authorities. These were ignored, giving Gerald Cotten the opportunity to escape without justice.
There are multiple issues with the SOC II model including the prohibitive cost (you have to find a third party accounting firm and the prices are not even listed publicly on any sites), the requirement of operating for a year (impossible for new platforms), and lack of any public visibility (SOC II are private reports that aren't shared outside the people in suits).
Securities frameworks are expensive. Sarbanes-Oxley is estimated to cost $5.1 million USD/yr for the average Fortune 500 company in the United States. Since "Fortune 500" represents the top 500 companies, that means well over $2.55 billion USD (~$3.4 billion CAD) is going to people in suits. Isn't the problem of trust and verification the exact problem that the blockchain is supposed to solve?
To use Quadriga as justification for why custodians or SOC II or other advanced schemes are needed for platforms is rather silly, when any framework or visibility at all, or even the most basic of storage policies, would have prevented the whole thing. It's just an embarrassment.
We are now seeing regulators take strong action. CoinSquare in Canada with multi-million dollar fines. BitMex from the US, criminal charges and arrests. OkEx, with full disregard of withdrawals and no communication. Who's next?
We have a unique window today where we can solve these problems, and not permanently destroy innovation with unreasonable expectations, but we need to act quickly. This is a unique historic time that will never come again.
Common sites with HIGHEST payout and STABLE income << 04/10/2020 >>
This is a long post, but please try to read it all and select the most suitable one for you. When you see any sites with good payout and good potential, feel free to create a post. Also when you know site that is scam, please create a post to alert everyone as soon as possible. There're 4 main and common types of task you will encounter when using beermoney sites. You can use all the sites or just pick the most suitable type and site to work with. Using more than one site is recommended, as the number of tasks on one site is not high enough, and the tasks will not appear continuously.
I. MICRO-TASK (or Crowdsourcing task)
The task is vary from article assessment, information collection, search-query classification/answer relevance, taking or collecting photo/video, to object identification,... The number of tasks will increase as you complete tasks. Pros: - The number of tasks is higher and more stable than other type of beermoney. - The payout is appropriate to your time and effort. You can even make stable income with them. Cons: - Sometime you will need to pass the training test to access the task. - Your work may not be accepted if it does not meet the guideline. - It can be a little hard in the beginning, there're also not many tasks for you, but BE PATIENT, because they haven't been able to fully assess your ability yet. 1-Toloka Yandex: This is one of my favorite micro task sites, and is the first on the list when I make beermoney site suggestion. The tasks are mainly in English and Russian. They also have task in your mother language too, depend on your setting and location. Don't worry about the language, as you can easily have it to be translated with google translate extension or any translation site and the task is easy enough to understand. The minimum withdrawal is $0.02 if you request to withdrawal once a week, and it will be $1 if more than once a week. You can withdraw the money to PayPal, Payoneer, Skrill or papara. But to be able to withdraw with PayPal, you will need a verified PayPal account. Here are registration links: ref-link and no-ref 2-Clickworker: One of the most popular micro task sites, you can find many recommendations and good reputation about them. But to make the most if it, you will need to unlock UHRS, as describe here. You definitely shouldn't miss Clickworker and UHRS. Their payout rate is higher than Toloka, but be careful that you'll be considered as spam if you complete the task too fast. Depend on your location and language, you can earn a great amount of money here, the highest I've earned in 1 day is $35. You can receive payment to PayPal account with the minimum of €5. You can choose other payment methods too, like SEPA transfers and Transferwise. No need to say anymore, here are the links: ref-link and no-ref 3-Remotasks You will need to take part in training (which is quite hard and time-consuming) and pass the test to be able to access a large number of tasks here. The tasks are categorization, text highlighting, image annotation, semantic segmentation,... and well-known Lidar Annotation and Segmentation. Here are registration links: ref-link and no-ref NOTE FOR MICRO-TASK:
It's highly recommended to use all those sites, and maybe other sites if you want, because the tasks are not shown continuously.
Make sure to fully understand the guideline, as you will not be credited if you work fails to meet the requirement, which will waste your time and effort.
If you find any task with really low credit but require a lot of time and effort, don't do it. If the requester still be able to find worker, they will always offer that price. It's not worth your time, just going to other tasks or going to other sites to see if there're any available tasks for you.
II. OFFER WALL TASK
Another way to earn beermoney online is to complete Offer wall tasks. You will be asked to installing app on your smartphone, signing up, playing game and reaching determined level, or watching video,.... Doing survey can also be listed here, but it will be shown in separate section. There're many offer walls for you to choose, with different payout level. Usually each beermoney site will list many offer walls, one offer can appear in more than one site/wall, so make sure to surf around and compare the credit to find the best and highest payout wall/site for that offer. Pros: - Easy to do - Can complete offer many times if you have different kinds of phone (mostly Android and iOS), or using another phone as the tasks are listed on many different offer walls. - Can earn money while playing and relaxing, as mostly the offered apps are games. Some apps only requires you to install and open, make it really quick to have some beermoney. Cons: - The payout is not very high. Especially when that offer is going through many walls and sites to reach you. - Some offer take much time to complete. - The number of offers is not high enough to do daily. 1-RewardXP RewardXP has surpassed GG2U to become the highest payout site. They have leveling system, the higher level you reach, the more offer walls you can access and the more benefit you can get. With the minimum of $5, they provide a variety of withdrawal methods for you to choose, like PayPal, Amazon, Steam,... You definitely should try this site. Here are your registration links: ref-link and no-ref. Registration with referral link, you will be given a 5000XP (~$0.5) bonus. 2-GG2U: This is also my favorite site. Their paying rate is one of the highest in the market (if you find any other site which is higher, feel free to suggest :D THE HIGHEST ONE NOW is RewardXP, see above). Aside from installing and registering app, they also have many survey walls for you. The most attractive part is that they will give you $1 bonus right after signing up, and after 5 withdrawal requests, you will have a chance to earn up to $7 bonus. With bonus, it's hard to say which is better, RewardXP or GG2U. You can withdraw money to your PayPal account or Coinbase (crypto wallet), with the minimum of $7. Here are your links: ref-link and no-ref 3-Cointiply One of the most popular sites, with great community. They will pay you with cryptocurrency like Bitcoin or Doge. You will have many chances to earn coins, by doing offer walls task, rolling the faucet every 1 hour, testing your luck with multiplier or by activating in their really crowded chat room. You can also earn some coins by clicking Paid-to-click ads. Most of the time, those ads are from Cointiply user with their referral link embedded, so if you register sites when viewing those ads, they will earn some commission. You can try this strategy too :D With their mobile app, it will be much easier to do mobile offers. Make sure to check your email and mobile app to get the user-limited Promotion Codes regularly. Registration links: ref-link and no-ref 4-Swagbucks Sometime you can earn money by spending less. Swagbucks offers a big number of sites where you can receive cash back when you shop online. If you shop online a lot, it's worth to take a look Here are registration link for shopping: ref-link-shopping and no-ref-shopping Beside the cash back program, Swagbucks also provides offer wall, however the paying rate is not as high as site 1 and 2 above. Anyway, if you want to try, here're your registration links: ref-link and no-ref 5-EarnCrypto If you're into doing offer walls task and earning crypto currency, try this site too. Their paying rate is quite lower than above sites, but they have Data entry task, which is daily, for you to earn some coins. By ranking high on their daily leader board, you will be rewarded with a great amount of coins (can even be higher than your earning from doing the data entry task itself :D). There are many different kinds of crypto currency for you to select. Just take a look if you have time: ref-link and no-ref NOTE FOR OFFER WALL TASK:
Every offer wall has a place to track your activity history, like what offer you clicked, what offer you completed and did you receive credit or not. Every time you're about to do an offer, after entering that offer (usually when you click an offer, a small panel about what offer is appears, there will be a button name 'continue' or 'go to offer', after you click that button, you're entering the offer), make sure that offer appears in your history tab of that offer wall. This will enable you to request support in case you complete the offer and have not received credit yet. If it does not appear in the history list, you will not be credited for that offer, so try to click it again.
To find the history tab, after entering offer wall, you will need to find a button named 'My coin', 'My history', 'Support', or button with question mark,... That button should be easy to be found.
Try to surf around to find the offer wall and site having the highest paying rate for the offer, as the same offer will appear in many offer walls and sites.
When you're about to start to do an offer of installing app (especially game), try to read the comment in appstore/playstore to see whether the offer's requirements can be easily to fulfill or not. For example, the requirements are: 1. install game, 2. open it, 3. reach level 30; and you find some comment about cannot reach level 25, or it takes months to reach level 29, then skip that offer, it's not worth the try.
III. PAY TO SEARCH
You can earn nearly passive income from this type of task. They will give you some query, you will search with that query, entering determined site, leaving that site opened for couple of minutes. Pros: - It's super easy to do. - While leaving the site open, you can do any other thing you want, like doing some micro-tasks. - The paying rate is quite good, especially when you will not need to do much. Cons: - The number of queries is not very high. 1-SerpClix In order to receive more queries to search, make sure to leave the site open and allow the notification. Even though SerpClix recommends you to click on the page, don't do that, just using scrollbar. SerpClix will automatically navigate to sub page of that page. Another suggestion here is to install adblock extension, because SerpClix will ban you if you click on any ads on the page, so blocking them before hand is a good move. Here your registration links: ref-link and no-ref
Probably all offer walls have some kind of surveys there, some surveys are only available through offer walls, some have their own sites. By using their own sites will not guarantee that you will have higher payout though. Make sure to be honest when doing survey, despite the fact that you will sometime be disqualified from the survey. There's many reasons why you are disqualified, like because your job is not suitable, your demography is not their target, your answer is not persistent,... BE CAREFUL, they will keep track of you, even if you clear your cookie, so being dishonest can lead you to be banned from their sites. Again, BE HONEST, and there will be suitable surveys for you. There will be two types of survey for you: the first one is filling form and selecting answer from their suggestion, the second one is to talk with them directly or via Video call apps. The second one has much much higher earning but the requirement is also higher too. Pros: - Easy to do, just being honest - High payout, especially with the second type of survey. - Some survey only need 5 minutes to complete with good payout. Cons: - Some survey can take about 30 minutes to complete, so make sure that you have enough free time. - You will be disqualified if your information is not suitable to their survey's target. BUT ALWAYS BE HONEST. 1-SurveyTime One of the best sites out there, my favorite one. They will instantly send you $1 or $0.5 (depend on survey) to your PayPal or Coinbase account when you complete the survey, so no minimum required to withdrawal. The survey you will do here is the first type, filling in the form and selecting answer. You can register with SurveyTime through some offer walls, as they will give you some more coins when you complete the survey, but make sure to check their's conditions. Make sure to turn on Browser notification and Email notification so that you don't miss any survey. Registration links: no-ref 2-Respondent You will need a microphone and/or webcam (built-in or external) as the survey in Respondent is conducted via video calls, phone calls, in-person discussions. Of course, you will receive a huge credit for doing survey here, from $5 up-to $1000. This's a great deal, one successful survey can get you more credit than doing hundreds of micro-tasks. Don't miss this site. They will recommend suitable survey for you, but if you want to view all available survey, make sure to uncheck the 'Recommended' option in Filter panel. Here're your registration links: ref-link and no-ref NOTE FOR SURVEY TASK:
sometime, they will provide the must-select answer in the question to test if your attention. Make sure to read the question carefully. For example, the question is "Do you agree that 1 + 1 = 2? Select option [I do not agree] in the answer", if you select [I agree], you fail.
BE CAREFUL - BE HONEST
When you're doing the first type survey (filling form, selecting answer), be careful not to install any app, or download any thing, or upload your social data file when asked. In that case, just contact survey site support and report it.
It's better to use many different survey sites to maximum the number of surveys you receive.
Last word, BE PATIENT - earning online can be a little hard in the beginning. Feel free to share your experience when using beermoney sites (and your referral link too :D) or ask question about any beermoney sites by creating new post. Also creating new post when you know that any site is scam or becomes scam. P.S 1: In case you need a Crypto wallet, you can use Coinbase, registration links: ref-link and no-ref, or Binance ref-link and no-ref. You can read here for the comparison between Coibase and Binance P.S 2: You can add some email addresses to PayPal account, so you can use many email address to register to beermoney sites if you want P.S 3: If you're confident with your English, and have a computer, microphone and webcam, you can try Usertesting site, you will visit a website that requires you to test, talk about your experience of using that site Here is the link: no-ref
https://join.spinincash.com/Clifford I made $298 in 3 days by downloading apps, completing surveys, and making short YouTube videos. If you have a link for a site like this that also rewards you for referring people, I'd be willing to use your link if you'll use mine, as long as I don't already have an account on that site. Pros •High Payouts •Many methods of payment (PayPal, Check, Bitcoin, ect.) •Download offers can be done again on separate devices for more rewards Cons •Must have 5 referrals, 8 tokens, and $100 to cash out for the first time
An intro to mystery shopping apps, and quick cash!
Mystery shopping is a ton of fun, and usually very easy. Many of you may already use some or all of the apps listed in this post, but I'm sure there are plenty of people who don't or haven't even heard of them. In this post, I'm gonna go over the apps that I use which are a good intro into mystery shopping, and discuss what I like about them, what I dislike if anything, and how they work. These apps offer smaller tasks for you to complete in your local area, and aren't as time-consuming as regular mystery shopping, which is great if you're looking for some quick cash. The premise of all of these apps is pretty much the same: you open the app, look at the available jobs around you on a map, or in list form, and get paid for completing them. You travel to the location specified, and do the work requested in the fashion of a survey where you'd go step-by-step through the job for each task they'd like you to do. Another thing that they have in common is that they expect you to submit quality work (no blurry photos, clearly written responses, etc), and have a good attention to detail when it comes to the job's requirements and instructions.
REF | Invite Code: x59kv92 | NON-REF Field Agent is, by far, my favorite of these apps that offer smaller jobs. The jobs are typically not too in-depth, and the pay is better than some of the others when considering the amount of work required. For instance, most of the jobs I do for Field Agent need only a few photos and ask a few multiple choice questions, and usually pay between $3-5. Don't expect all of them to be that way, though. For instance, I did a job a few days ago that asked me to walk around a convenience store and give my opinion on the store's cleanliness, check out a milkshake machine, look for signage/promotional material related to that machine, and give my opinions about. In total, that job took me about 10 minutes, and it paid $4. The good thing is that you can pick and choose the jobs you want to do. You reserve the job, and then go out and do it. The average window they give you to submit your completed job is 2 hours, which is way more than enough time to claim the job and get it done. Any jobs that would require more time will have a larger window for completion. They also offer more in-depth jobs from time to time, and sometimes even multi-part consumer surveys. One of my favorite categories is Buy & Try. These are exactly what they sound like. They want you to purchase a specific product, submit a photo of your receipt, then try it out and tell them what you like and don't like about it. The best part is that in addition to paying you for the job, usually around $3, they also reimburse you for the price of the product when your job is approved. Reimbursement isn't limited to the Buy & Try category, though. If you're required to purchase something, they'll typically reimburse you for your cost of the product, and it will say so in the job's description. Another thing that makes Field Agent stand out from the rest is that they have Scavenger Hunt categories. These are filled with products from somewhere that they need more information about. They provide you with the product's name, as it would appear in a store's inventory or on a receipt, the specific UPC of that product, and the store that it could possibly be found at. You don't actually have to find them at the listed store, though, or even at any store at all. If you have the product at your house, or a friend's house or whatever, that's perfectly fine as well. The item names are heavily abbreviated, so you've gotta be creative when trying to decipher them. If you do happen to find the exact product, which is evident by the product's UPC, then the bounty for these jobs is $6.50 for each one. My biggest piece of advice for the Scavenger Hunt items is to not spend a lot of time trying to find them, or going out of your way to do so. Stick to products you recognize, and may remember seeing somewhere. In some cases, the products shown are seasonal, regional, or even discontinued, which is why I don't suggest you go scouting for them specifically. Instead, take a peak around if you happen to already be somewhere that may carry it. One more thing: DO THE TICKET JOBS!!! These don't pay anything, but they do sometimes qualify you for other jobs that you wouldn't be offered without having completed the qualifying ticket job first. They're very quick to do, and consist of anywhere from 1 - quite a few questions, but normally only take 30 seconds to a minute to complete. Each one you complete also gives you a ticket for their monthly drawing, and if you win that, the more tickets you have, the higher your prize will be (up to $500). Average Pay: $3 - $5 per job Average Approval Time: 1-3 business days Cash Out Method: ACH (bank account required) Minimum Cash Out: $3 Availability: United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, South Africa, Mexico, Ecuador
Referral Code: QXDD | NON-REF This is a pretty good one, and the pay is also pretty decent. I'm ranking this below Field Agent, though, because the "missions" tend to involve a bit more walking around and require more photos/questions to be answered. You're also not paid out in cash, but rather gift cards. If you sign up using my referral code above, you'll also get an extra $3 (300 points) after your first mission is approved. What sets it apart from Field Agent is that they sometimes give you bonus points, when your mission is approved, for various things. Bonus points can be awarded for such things as a long distance from the last mission you completed (even if it's not on the same day), your first time completing a mission at a specific store, etc. For the distance bonus, the farther straightline distance between jobs, starting at just 10 miles, the more bonus points you'll receive. You can also earn points for claiming Achievements (you have to manually claim them from the Achievements tab once you've reached the specified goals). My favorite of all the achievements is specifically for new users where you can receive a total of $31, collectively through 5 separate Achievements, for completing just a single mission on 30 different days. The first of these 5 Achievements rewards $1 for completing just one mission. Other Achievements are for completing a specified number of missions at certain stores like Target, Best Buy, Home Depot, Lowe's, etc. One fallback of Mobee is that they don't pay you in dollar amounts, but it still isn't bad in my opinion. Instead, they award you with points (100 points = $1). You can redeem your points for gift cards which start as low as $5, and cover numerous retailers, restaurants, a virtual MasterCard, and more. You could also donate your earnings to a charitable organization listed in the app if you wish. Another fallback, which actually kinda annoys me, but hasn't actually been an issue in my years of using the app, is that you cannot reserve missions. The mission must be available when you arrive at the location requested, and you aren't able to start it until you are there. Luckily, I don't live in a large area, so this hasn't been a problem for me as of yet. Average Pay: $2 - $5 (200-500 points) per job Average Approval Time: 3-5 business days Cash Out Method: Gift Cards Minimum Cash Out: $3 (for charitable donations), $5 (for gift cards) Availability: United States, Canada
NON-REF EasyShift is good, but you must pay attention to the requirements of each "shift." The rate of pay for EasyShift, in regard to the amount of work required, isn't normally as high as Field Agent or Mobee, but if you pick the right ones, it certainly can be, so be sure to read what's required of you for each of the shifts before you reserve them, as sometimes you'll find it's just not worth your time. Also, even though the rate of pay isn't always as high, the amount paid per job is usually higher than the former two. Like Field Agent, you are able to reserve shifts, so you don't have to worry about it being taken by the time you get to your location. The biggest problem I've had with EasyShift is the in-app camera, which doesn't show the full area of what you're capturing. This can be a bit annoying when you're asked to take a photo of something, which I'm pretty sure is required in every job if I'm not mistaken. The good thing is that you can review your photos, and delete/retake them if you need to. I've pretty much gotten used to this quirk, and adjust accordingly, so it doesn't bother me as much as it used to, but it would still be nice if they fixed it. Keep in mind that I'm using an Android device, so this may not be an issue for iOS users. Average Pay: $5 - $10 per job Average Approval Time: 3-7 business days Cash Out Method: PayPal Minimum Cash Out: None (Your pay for each shift is deposited into your PayPal account within a few days of it being approved) Availability: United States
Merchandiser by Survey.com
REF | Referral Code: kevinfMJY6 | NON-REF This is definitely a fun and very lucrative one. The pay rate for this app is actually really good. The only reason I'm putting it way down here is because the work involved for each of the "gigs" is more in-depth and sometimes labor-intensive. However, you do have the opportunity to earn much more, and you can be in direct contact with the people who are running the projects, which helps to lead to more and higher-paying gigs if you're able to complete more of the same ones, for instance. It also helps should you have any questions, or issues that need to be addressed. The best parts of this app are the pay, the variety of gigs posted, and the direct contact with project managers/assigners. To give a recent example, I completed a gig at a local Walmart which required that I scan the shelf tags of all products on all endcaps of the specified departments within the store. This type of gig is especially easy, since the in-app barcode scanner allows you to scan barcode after barcode in batches without having to submit each one. That gig took me roughly 30-45 minutes to complete, and paid $25. To give an example of the opportunities for extra work, a while back my mother (who referred me to the app) requested, and was assigned, an audit of a beer cave at a local Circle K convenience store. The audit took about 10 or so minutes to complete, and paid quite decently. The project assigner contacted her via text message asking if she'd be interested in completing a route that same audit at all of the Circle K convenience stores a few cities over (about an hour drive from her home, and included 15-20 stores total). She accepted when he said they'd pay her mileage, a bonus, and a bit more for each of the audits than the first of she could have it done by the end of the upcoming weekend. In total, she made a little over a few hundred dollars for the two or so days she put into it. They really like quality work, by the way. After completing those, he asked if she'd be interested in completing another route of the same audits, but in the next state which is about 2 hours from her home. She wished she would've had the time to do it, since he offered mileage, hotel and food costs, and another slight pay bump to each of the audits. Unfortunately it needed to be done during a time when she had previous engagements, so she had to decline. The types of gigs they offer include those such as quick and simple audits, product demos that you'd perform in stores (these usually require about 3-4 hours of your time, and also an application to be submitted and approved, but they pay very well. As an example, they're currently running a 4-hour product demo project which pays $20/hour), product shelf resets, POS placements (this is where you'd be placing promotional material or signage, product displays, etc. for a specific product in a store), and more! The one thing that may be intimidating about the app is navigation. There are quite a few things to click on to get the information you need. This isn't a huge issue, however, since after using it for some time, you get used to the app's layout and how to find everything you need to be successful. Average Pay: $7 - $20 per job Approval Time: 8 business days (scheduled) Cash Out Method: PayPal Minimum Cash Out: $5 (You must request a payout in the app. Payments are sent on a specified schedule, which also depends on the date you request your payout. The payment schedule for 2019 can be viewed here.) Availability: United States
The following apps are those which I don't use very often because they don't list very many jobs in my area, so they're not as lucrative to me. I'm still going to list them because they may still be worth a look for you, since you never know what they may have available in your area.
GigwalkNON-REF Availability: United States, Canada Cash Out Method: PayPal
ObservaREF | Referral Code: initial-gharial | NON-REF Availability: United States (Maybe others. Their site lists only North America as a whole) Cash Out Method: PayPal, Coinbase (Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Ethereum, and Litecoin)
If there are any other similar apps that you all use, feel free to drop them in the comments along with something about them. I'm always on the lookout for more apps to add to my arsensal. If you have any questions about any of the aforementioned apps, feel free to ask in the comments. I'll do my best to answer anything I can.
One summer day I walked into a doctor office and got a script for 120x 80mg OxyContin.... At the time I had a wife (my high school sweetheart) and we were getting used to being parents to our son who was 2 years old at the time. I first started doing opiates recreationally when I was 15. Almost 20 years ago. That, along with anything else I could get my hands on. And for a very long time, the bouncing between drugs method to being a highly functional addict worked perfectly. Sure, I had a few instances where I’d get a couple hundred 10mg yellow norcos and binge on them enough to experience some mild withdrawals, but I was always able to be done when I ran out. It was my once or twice a year treat I’d do after the first snow fell onto Detroit. I’d lock myself in a room and play video games. I would DJ downtown at the clubs throughout my twenties, and got it in pretty hard. Ain’t no party like a Detroit party... It was the rave scene. Which was still going strong in the D back when I was first introduced to it in 2002. I was a kid in a candy store - mixing savage amount of drugs for about 15 years straight. We would always carry this vile filled to the top, containing cocaine, MDMA, 2C-i and ketamine. That vile was what me and my boy (who was my partner in both DJaying and crime) would consider our nightly driver, and we perfected its ratio as if we were working on the cure for fucking cancer. This of course was including whatever other drugs we could get our hands on because after all, there are starving kids in China. For the longest time in that scene it was all just partying and candyflipping. Hundreds of nitrous tanks, psychedelics, ethenogens, phenethylamines, trimethylamines and girls 😍. Sex drugs and techno. The only thing that was missing in excess were the opiates. Even at the after hours clubs, where anything goes, they still wouldn’t allow open opiate use. I should have taken that as a huge sign. When criminals don’t even tolerate junkies that says a lot. By the time I was 28 I had made a lot of money dealing drugs, weed and selling thousands of nitrous balloons balloons at parties. We’d take our money and put 20% overhead toward the next party and this went on for years. I would say nitrous oxide was the drug that crossed me over to the dark side. They call it hippy crack for a reason. Despite that, I had my house paid off. Three ridiculously loud vehicles paid off. Campers, boats you name it. I had it all and I completely got away with it too. After one too many binges it was time I hung up my decks and headphones. I squirted one into my wife and I was ready to grow up. I was tapped out. I’ll admit I wasn’t ready to be a dad. I tried my hardest to be clean. I did it for the first 8 months of his life. But I couldn’t run my medical marijuana business and be a stay at home dad without cocaine. Especially with a 20 year hangover. And cocaine makes people insufferable and sleep deprived. Then the alcohol got bad too. I crashed a couple times and eventually got a DUI. Being the model addict I was determined to beat the system. “They can’t deny a prescription”, I thought. I was determined to stay fucked up. So in August I see my probation officer with my OxyContin script in hand. And before I show him he says, “You’re done. You passed all your drug tests (phew!) and haven’t been a pain in my ass, so enjoy the rest of your summer” Sometimes I wonder where I’d be if I just tossed that script away. I certainly wouldn’t be writing this living out of a 2004 beat up Impala. But there’s no going back now. My ex who hilariously decided to become a cop had enough of me once our shared last name made it into the system. I came home one day to a note and my family was gone. Just me and my things.... and 120x 80mg OxyContin.... By the time the bottle was gone I was already lining up my dope. I forgot to mention that I always dabbled with a couple packs here and there throughout my party days. I actually shot dope when I was 16 and my ex wife (who was just my high school sweetheart then) found out and warned me then... “Opiates or me”. In hindsight, I always knew she left because of that script. But I played the victim at the time because you all know what time it was... Nothing numbs pain like heroin. So instead of doing the right thing, I slept. I had enough money to support that habit for three years. Within a month I got up to 3 grams of tan powder per day. Just snorting it tho... you know... because I didn’t want to be a junkie... lol My partner in crime and his girl were already one year in. They showed me the ropes and eventually when I lost custody of my son they helped me tie off. To this day I close my eyes and say “mmmm” when I see blood rush back into a syringe. Slowly we melted away from everything we loved. And the dope started getting whiter... I remember the first time I shot fentanyl. I woke up in a bathtub with eyes staring at me in horror. And the only thing I said was “give me more”. Only my buddy laughed. He’ll always be my evil twin and I’ll always be his. We all got fired from our jobs. I was supporting us all with my harvests until my buddy got his monthly insurance payout check and he’d reciprocate. Eventually we realized (after his girl crashed the car a few times) that we needed to level off. Every boy needs a girl after all. Enter crack. There’s nothing in the world that will exponentially make you use more dope faster than smoking crack all day. Our daily order became one ball of each. We became fiends. Racing thru the drugs. Accusing each other of stealing our hits. Carpet surfing. My buddy’s girl started tricking behind his back. The spots got darker and grimier. The bandos and traps smelled of death. Sometimes we couldn’t wait til we got home and we’d get stuck in the traps for days. Walk in with cash and walk out with the trauma of seeing someone OD and just get rolled under the floorboards. That was the moment I woke up. This is not me. That was someone’s daughter. Just thrown away like trash. Didn’t stop me from figuring out what the deep web had to offer though. Finally I could just stay home and never have to see that horrible shit again. I found a vendor that was perfect and for a year I sat in bed shooting pure fentanyl and fishscale. God bless bitcoin and darknetmarkets. I got into all the analogues too. FuFent, BuFent, tried doing 4isoButryl to quit. It made me violently ill. And eventually my vendor hit me up and said he had a line on carfentanil. I told him no way.... at first. Then he assured me it was properly cut. He sent me a tester. I sorted out a tiny little bump. Understand, by this time I was up to 3 grams of his “pure” (ya right) fentanyl HCL per day. At least that’s what his listing said. When I snorted that CF I fell out for 36 hours. All I remember is a massive tingling sensation cover my body and I was unconscious. Fast forward two months later and I was shooting 50mg of this premixed CF twice per day.... And then the DEA shut down the big three and suddenly he was gone.... Fuck My Life.... So just to let you all know, back then the word carfentanil wasn’t on the news describing imagery like tranquilized elephants. Nobody knew what the fuck it was. Let alone where to get it.... I had to resort to banging 5 grams of street fentanyl per day just to stay well... Finally I realized that this was no longer manageable. It didn’t matter if I grew a forest of weed to sell. So I started my research and diligently sourced a rapid drug detox center in Royal Oak, MI. They touted a cure that involved putting me under anesthesia and flushing me out with Narcan and vitamins. “You will come out of this feeling like you’re in week 6!!” they said... motherfuckers.... So if you ever want to know what the precipitated withdrawal feels like coming off carfentanil look this place up. I cannot begin to even describe the agony of this experience. I literally have PTSD from it. Not only had these doctors never heard of carfentanil, they just rather assumed I was a stupid junkie who didn’t know what he was on. I don’t remember this part personally, but they said that when they administered the Narcan I immediately went into a seizure. They administered some kind of sedative to bring me out of that, and when they did they told me I flopped around like a fish unconscious, until I woke up out of the anesthesia and they had to knock me out again. The only thing I remember is having these insane, physically impossible dreams. Like roads swirling around my head and falling thru the middle of them. Molecules of fire being shaved off by swinging pendulums. Just the weirdest craziest imagery I never thought was possible. Withdrawal dreams... When I awoke I had ataxia. I had shit myself. Pissed myself. And god was electrocuting my soul. The pain was at apex this existence would allow. I managed to roll off the gurney and for some reason just started crawling. The nurses tried stopping me but my fight or flight kicked in. After 18 hours of hell they wheel chaired me to my nurse monitored hotel room where I had my suboxone stash. That was the height of my addiction leaving that rapid detox. 5 grams of dope, a ball of crack and 5 Xanax bars was my daily purchase. I sold all my cars. Sold my house. Pawned every last one of my things I thought were so important. Went from 215lb to 125lb. I tried intentionally overdosing 3 separate times. But it’s really hard to overdose when you have that kind of tolerance. Water can only hold so much fentanyl, and a needle can only hold so much. Nothing is more disappointing in life than waking up from a suicide attempt. The shame and embarrassment of even trying just eats you up. I’m not going to bore you with every home detox attempt, treatment center and methadone clinic. Back and fourth from dope to subs. Got up to 225mg methadone. Back to dope. Back to rehab. Back to subs. Back to dope. Rehab. Subs. Dope. Rehabs. Subs. Etc... Six USA treatment centers overall. Years of this. Three years of lowering my tolerance with each treatment. Relapsing when I couldn’t take it anymore. Giving it my all the next time. Somehow I landed the love of my life during all this. My friends old gal. We went way back. Joked we really should be together. She decides to jump into my situation when I was 125lbs. She literally left the guy she lived with to save my life. I had never felt that before. Being wanted like that. If it weren’t for her I wouldn’t be here. She stood by the last two years. Run my baths and try her little heart out to get me through it. Well over 30 at home detox attempts she’d stand by me for 3-4 days and her heart would sink as she watched me just give up and head to the dope spot. It makes me sick just typing it. I tried kicking her out and ending things many times to rid the guilt of doing this to her. But this little thing wouldn’t give in. So I didn’t either. The only reason I include this is because as cheesy as it sounds, love really is the strongest drug in the world. Don’t worry that’s not the cure tho lol So at my second to last treatment center out in California I meet this dude. Huge body builder but gentle giant. Sweetest guy I’ve ever met. He starts telling me about this crazy treatment he did down in Mexico that cured him. Naturally I ask, well why the fuck are you here if it cured you? “Well it cured my opIate addiction, but now I’m here for benzos and alcohol”.... lol I let it stew for a while. I had heard of Ibogaine a long time ago and always thought it was some bullshit junkie myth. Ya like I’m gonna go sit in some tribal ceremony and let a witch doctor heal me with voodoo plants. Then I hit rock bottom.... Fuck it! I’ve literally tried everything else. Side note: I just want to add that up until this point I had always been a vehement atheist. I prayed to Sagan and put all my faith into science. But after living in a bathtub for a quarter of the last three years, I was starting to see myself begging god to make this stop more and more. So I made a deal. If this shit cures my physical addiction, and physiologically repairs all the broken neurons, and rewires all the synapses in my brain like the research says it does, then I will not only believe in god, but I will know that he heard my cries. So I find this beautiful clinic. At this point mom is paying for me to go because I’m homeless and broke and have absolutely nothing. She shells out the $4500usd bucks, praying for a miracle. So I feel like a total asshole walking into this resort. I’m used to USA rehabs that are punishment based and have rules and treat you like children. This place was staffed with highly professional on site nurses and doctors catering to you like a baby. Fucking beach view. Personal chef. Netflix/Xbox/PS4. They provide free cigarettes!? Like where the fuck had this rehab been? They can’t find a vein on my body I haven’t destroyed so I have to get a central line put in for my IV saline bags. I was there for 5 days and they kept me well with 725mg of morphine per day. Then they tested my heart with an EKG monitor and I’m cleared for take off. Suddenly it hits me. What the fuck has happened to my life.... I am in MEXICO 🇲🇽 with a PICC line inserted damn near into my heart, and I’m about to eat 25mg/ kilogram of body weight of pure Ibogaine HCL. Somehow I just knew inside that this was the end. That drugs got me into this mess and drugs will get me out. I mean it’s the perfect ending right? Well upstairs to my room I go. Test dose. Feel nothing. Hour later. Flood dose 1. Starting to feel shaky. I sneak downstairs and get a few cigarettes in me. And I had to rat on myself because the time I was done I was FUCKED UP. Nurses helped me back to my bed. Scolded me in Spanish and gave me my 2nd flood dose. I’m vibrating now. Vision is barely possible. My body becomes a noodle. My bones are just vibrating. But there was no pain. Nurse comes in again. “Time for next dose”.... “ Are you sure dude? This shits reallly kicking in. “Here swallow. Close your eyes. Listen to your headphones. Flood dose 3 down the hatch. My body ceased to exist. The vibrations of the universe shook loose every last opiate in my body. I felt like warm cream. I go unconscious. The visions appear. First my fiancé. Just appears out of a black void and looks at me. She starts balling. And then her skin gets older and she starts dying and decaying in my arms. This goes on and on and on for about an hour and a half. My son. My ex wife. My mom. My dad. My grandma. My friends. Everyone I have ever loved in my life. I watched die in my arms. Which let me tell you is one thing to read in someone else’s story on a screen. But I cannot emphasize the gravity of what this did to me. It was payback for making everyone I have ever loved watch me die in front of them. Finally I understood. Finally back to reality but suuuuper fucked up. My body is humming so loud I can hear it. Every time I close my eyes I see my son and I start crying. I hadn’t cried like that in almost 20 years. And I couldn’t stop. My eyes just wept for another half hour. So that’s the subjective trip. But what does Ibogaine really do to the brain? Neuroscientists still don’t know. But they know it works. They know it resets the brain to a pre-addicted state. Research 18-MC and 18-HC and you will see that the scientific community is working on this Ibogaine analog to develop the same effect but without the trip. I have mixed feelings on this. If you ask the people who go through it they will claim god was in that experience. But that’s not good enough for some people. But I was willing to do anything. And I don’t think the god experience should be removed. Ibogaine worked for me. It has been working for addicts for over 40 years. Maybe longer in tribal communities. Unfortunately, it works so well that rich addicts are using it as a get out of jail free card to just lower their tolerance and go right back out. But it is the miracle cure - just buried in myths, and advocates of suboxone and a bunch of other stuff that never worked for me. That doesn’t mean Ibogaine should be a last resort. If I did Ibogaine when I first heard about it I would have erased half a decade of hell. So all I want to say to you is that it is the real deal. There are many reputable clinics in Mexico offering this treatment. The one I went to has successfully detoxed over 2,000 patients without a single incident. When I was there I personally witnessed 12 people kick opiates. The main thing about it though isn’t the fact that it completely erases the acute withdrawals. It’s the fact that after you come out of it, you are you again. Your mental state is clear. You don’t have that cloud of “I’m a piece of shit” following you around. You actually feel excited and happy. No dealing with months of depression. And this place prescribed me Lyrica and sent me home with 3 booster doses of the Ibogaine total alkaloid extract. Which is different from the pure HCL extract you get for the big trip. So far three weeks later I haven’t even touched my boosters. I walked back across the border on day 2 off opiates. And the day I left I also got to smoke the infamous Bufo Alvarius toad venom, which contains 5-MEO-DMT. I won’t go far into that because that was a very personal experience I got to have. But you can read about those experiences elsewhere. And let me tell you. That was the last puzzle piece in my head that allowed me to let go of all the evil shit I had encountered. I was finally forgiven. Unfortunately my ex isn’t as forgiving as god... I got some work to do! Be careful ya’ll. For those that got here, thanks for letting me share. And thank you for helping me stay clean. Love ya reddit. I just want to say that Ibogaine is the cure for physical addiction / the broken mental state that lingers for months into recovery. Which in many cases is what causes people to relapse within the first 12-18 months of recovery. Ibogaine is a shortcut to the path of recovery that is lifelong. If you go home after this treatment to the same life, with the same environment, same people and seek no after care / support, you will relapse. Also, thank god we live in a time where suboxone and methadone allow people to have their lives back. Recovery isn’t a competition. I had 8 months clean times thanks to suboxone. But I was still addicted to a legal opioid. I didn’t have a big boy job like others that required me to be well. Being a dope fiend was my job. I recognize that despite losing EVERYTHING, I was very fortunate and lucky all things considered. Unfortunately, to all the methadone/ bupe users inquiring about Ibogaine, you must be ~40-60 days off long acting opioids in order to do this treatment. If you are stable and have your life back then keep tapering down. Do not throw away your recovery to do Ibogaine. God bless you all and thank you for the kind words and wonderful responses. I know it was a long one, so I am truly touched by the responses 🥰
arriving at consensus AND distributing coins via burning Bitcoin instead of electricity/equipment to create permissionless, unfakeable, green, and trust minimized basis over every aspect of sidechain control.
creating Bitcoin peg from altcoin chain to mainchain (the hard direction) by allocating small percentage of Bitcoin intended for burning to reimbursing withdrawals, effectively making it a childchain/sidechain (no oracles or federated multisigs)
This is not an altcoin thread. I'm not making anything. The design discussed options for existing altcoins and new ways to built on top of Bitcoin inheriting some of its security guarantees. 2 parts: First, the design allows any altcoins to switch to securing themselves via Bitcoin instead of their own PoW or PoS with significant benefits to both altcoins and Bitcoin (and environment lol). Second, I explain how to create Bitcoin-pegged assets to turn altcoins into a Bitcoin sidechain equivalent. Let me know if this is of interest or if it exists, feel free to use or do anything with this, hopefully I can help.
how to create continuous sunk costs, permissionless entry, high cost of attacks?
how to do it without needing to build up a new source of hardware capital or energy costs?
how to peg another chain's token value w/o incentivized collusion risk of federation or oracles?
how to make sidechain use fully optional for all Bitcoin parties?
how to allow programmable Bitcoins w/ unlimited permissionless expressiveness w/o forcing mainchain into additional risks?
Solution to first few points:
Continuous Proof of Bitcoin Burn (CPoBB) to distribute supply control and sidechain consensus control to independent parties
Distributes an altcoin for permissionless access and sidechain-only sybil protection.
In case of sidechain block-producer censorship, Bitcoin's independent data availability makes sidechain nodes trivially aware
PoW altcoin switching to CPoBB would trade:
cost of capital and energy -> cost of burnt bitcoin
finality of their PoW -> finality of Bitcoin's PoW
impact on environment -> 0 impact on environment
unforgeable costliness of work -> unforgeable costliness of burn
contract logic can include conditions dependent on real Bitcoins as it's Bitcoin-aware
PoS altcoin switching to CPoBB would trade:
permissioned by coin holders entry -> permissionless entry by anyone with access to Bitcoin
no incentive to give up control or sell coins -> incentive to sell coins to cover the cost of burnt bitcoin
incentivized guaranteed centralization of control over time by staking -> PoW guarantees with same 0 environmental impact
nothing at stake -> recovering sunk costs at stake
contract logic can include conditions dependent on real Bitcoins as it's Bitcoin-aware
We already have a permissionless, compact, public, high-cost-backed finality base layer to build on top - Bitcoin! It will handle sorting, data availability, finality, and has something of value to use instead of capital or energy that's outside the sidechain - the Bitcoin coins. The sunk costs of PoW can be simulated by burning Bitcoin, similar to concept known as Proof of Burn where Bitcoin are sent to unspendable address. Unlike ICO's, no contributors can take out the Bitcoins and get rewards for free. Unlike PoS, entry into supply lies outside the alt-chain and thus doesn't depend on permission of alt-chain stake-coin holders. It's hard to find a more bandwidth or state size protective blockchain to use other than Bitcoin as well so altcoins can be Bitcoin-aware at little marginal difficulty - 10 years of history fully validates in under a day.
What are typical issues with Proof of Burn?
limited burn time window prevents permissionless entry in the future. how many years did it take for most heavily mined projects to become known and well reviewed? many. thus entry into control of supply that's vital to control of chain cannot be dependent on the earliest stage of the project. (counterparty)
"land grabs" - by having limited supply without continuous emission or inflation we encourage holding vs spending.
These issues can be fixed by having Proof of Burn be permanently accessible and continuous: Continuous Proof of Bitcoin Burn CPoBB
This should be required for any design for it to stay permissionless. Optional is constant fixed emission rate for altcoins not trying to be money if goal is to maximize accessibility. Since it's not depending on brand new PoW for security, they don't have to depend on massive early rewards giving disproportionate fraction of supply at earliest stage either. If 10 coins are created every block, after n blocks, at rate of 10 coins per block, % emission per block is = (100/n)%, an always decreasing number. Sidechain coin doesn't need to be scarce money, and could maximize distribution of control by encouraging further distribution. If no burners exist in a block, altcoin block reward is simply added to next block reward making emission predictable. Sidechain block content should be committed in burn transaction via a root of the merkle tree of its transactions. Sidechain state will depend on Bitcoin for finality and block time between commitment broadcasts. However, the throughput can be of any size per block, unlimited number of such sidechains can exist with their own rules and validation costs are handled only by nodes that choose to be aware of a specific sidechain by running its consensus compatible software. Important design decision is how can protocol determine the "true" side-block and how to distribute incentives. Simplest solution is to always :
Agree on the valid sidechain block matching the merkle root commitment for the largest amount of Bitcoin burnt, earliest inclusion in the bitcoin block as the tie breaker
Distribute block reward during the next side-block proportional to current amounts burnt
Bitcoin fee market serves as deterrent for spam submissions of blocks to validate
sidechain block reward is set always at 10 altcoins per block Bitcoin block contains the following content embedded and part of its transactions: tx11: burns 0.01 BTC & OP_RETURN tx56: burns 0.05 BTC & OP_RETURN ... <...root of valid sidechain block version 1> ... tx78: burns 1 BTC & OP_RETURN ... <...root of valid sidechain block version 2> ... tx124: burns 0.2 BTC & OP_RETURN ... <...root of INVALID sidechain block version 3> ...
Validity is deterministic by rules in client side node software (e.g. signature validation) so all nodes can independently see version 3 is invalid and thus burner of tx124 gets no reward allocated. The largest valid burn is from tx78 so version 2 is used for the blockchain in sidechain. The total valid burn is 1.06 BTC, so 10 altcoins to be distributed in the next block are 0.094, 0.472, 9.434 to owners of first 3 transactions, respectively. Censorship attack would require continuous costs in Bitcoin on the attacker and can be waited out. Censorship would also be limited to on-sidechain specific transactions as emission distribution to others CPoB contributors wouldn't be affected as blocks without matching coin distributions on sidechain wouldn't be valid. Additionally, sidechains can allow a limited number of sidechain transactions to happen via embedding transaction data inside Bitcoin transactions (e.g. OP_RETURN) as a way to use Bitcoin for data availability layer in case sidechain transactions are being censored on their network. Since all sidechain nodes are Bitcoin aware, it would be trivial to include. Sidechain blocks cannot be reverted without reverting Bitcoin blocks or hard forking the protocol used to derive sidechain state. If protocol is forked, the value of sidechain coins on each fork of sidechain state becomes important but Proof of Burn natively guarantees trust minimized and permissionless distribution of the coins, something inferior methods like obscure early distributions, trusted pre-mines, and trusted ICO's cannot do. More bitcoins being burnt is parallel to more hash rate entering PoW, with each miner or burner getting smaller amount of altcoins on average making it unprofitable to burn or mine and forcing some to exit. At equilibrium costs of equipment and electricity approaches value gained from selling coins just as at equilibrium costs of burnt coins approaches value of altcoins rewarded. In both cases it incentivizes further distribution to markets to cover the costs making burners and miners dependent on users via markets. In both cases it's also possible to mine without permission and mine at a loss temporarily to gain some altcoins without permission if you want to. Altcoins benefit by inheriting many of bitcoin security guarantees, bitcoin parties have to do nothing if they don't want to, but will see their coins grow more scarce through burning. The contributions to the fee market will contribute to higher Bitcoin miner rewards even after block reward is gone.
What is the ideal goal of the sidechains? Ideally to have a token that has the bi-directionally pegged value to Bitcoin and tradeable ~1:1 for Bitcoin that gives Bitcoin users an option of a different rule set without compromising the base chain nor forcing base chain participants to do anything different. Issues with value pegs:
federation based pegs allow collusion to steal bitcoins stored in multi-party controlled accounts
even if multisig participants are switched or weighted in some trust minimized manner, there's always incentive to collude and steal more
smart contract pegs (plasma, rollups) on base chain would require bitcoin nodes and miners to validate sidechain transactions and has to provide block content for availability (e.g. call data in rollups), making them not optional.
bitcoin nodes shouldn't be sidechain aware so impossible to peg the value
Let's get rid of the idea of needing Bitcoin collateral to back pegged coins 1:1 as that's never secure, independent, or scalable at same security level. As drive-chain design suggested the peg doesn't have to be fast, can take months, just needs to exist so other methods can be used to speed it up like atomic swaps by volunteers taking on the risk for a fee. In continuous proof of burn we have another source of Bitcoins, the burnt Bitcoins. Sidechain protocols can require some minor percentage (e.g. 20%) of burner tx value coins via another output to go to reimburse those withdrawing side-Bitcoins to Bitcoin chain until they are filled. If withdrawal queue is empty that % is burnt instead. Selection of who receives reimbursement is deterministic per burner. Percentage must be kept small as it's assumed it's possible to get up to that much discount on altcoin emissions. Let's use a really simple example case where each burner pays 20% of burner tx amount to cover withdrawal in exact order requested with no attempts at other matching, capped at half amount requested per payout. Example:
withdrawal queue: request1: 0.2 sBTC request2: 1.0 sBTC request3: 0.5 sBTC same block burners: tx burns 0.8 BTC, 0.1 BTC is sent to request1, 0.1 BTC is sent to request2 tx burns 0.4 BTC, 0.1 BTC is sent to request1 tx burns 0.08 BTC, 0.02 BTC is sent to request 1 tx burns 1.2 BTC, 0.1 BTC is sent to request1, 0.2 BTC is sent to request2 withdrawal queue: request1: filled with 0.32 BTC instead of 0.2 sBTC, removed from queue request2: partially-filled with 0.3 BTC out of 1.0 sBTC, 0.7 BTC remaining for next queue request3: still 0.5 sBTC
Withdrawal requests can either take long time to get to filled due to cap per burn or get overfilled as seen in "request1" example, hard to predict. Overfilling is not a big deal since we're not dealing with a finite source. The risk a user that chooses to use the sidechain pegged coin takes on is based on the rate at which they can expect to get paid based on value of altcoin emission that generally matches Bitcoin burn rate. If sidechain loses interest and nobody is burning enough bitcoin, the funds might be lost so the scale of risk has to be measured. If Bitcoins burnt per day is 0.5 BTC total and you hope to deposit or withdraw 5000 BTC, it might take a long time or never happen to withdraw it. But for amounts comparable or under 0.5 BTC/day average burnt with 5 side-BTC on sidechain outstanding total the risks are more reasonable. Deposits onto the sidechain are far easier - by burning Bitcoin in a separate known unspendable deposit address for that sidechain and sidechain protocol issuing matching amount of side-Bitcoin. Withdrawn bitcoins are treated as burnt bitcoins for sake of dividing block rewards as long as they followed the deterministic rules for their burn to count as valid and percentage used for withdrawals is kept small to avoid approaching free altcoin emissions by paying for your own withdrawals and ensuring significant unforgeable losses. Ideally more matching is used so large withdrawals don't completely block everyone else and small withdrawals don't completely block large withdrawals. Better methods should deterministically randomize assigned withdrawals via previous Bitcoin block hash, prioritized by request time (earliest arrivals should get paid earlier), and amount of peg outstanding vs burn amount (smaller burns should prioritize smaller outstanding balances). Fee market on bitcoin discourages doing withdrawals of too small amounts and encourages batching by burners. The second method is less reliable but already known that uses over-collateralized loans that create a oracle-pegged token that can be pegged to the bitcoin value. It was already used by its inventors in 2014 on bitshares (e.g. bitCNY, bitUSD, bitBTC) and similarly by MakerDAO in 2018. The upside is a trust minimized distribution of CPoB coins can be used to distribute trust over selection of price feed oracles far better than pre-mined single trusted party based distributions used in MakerDAO (100% pre-mined) and to a bit lesser degree on bitshares (~50% mined, ~50% premined before dpos). The downside is 2 fold: first the supply of BTC pegged coin would depend on people opening an equivalent of a leveraged long position on the altcoin/BTC pair, which is hard to convince people to do as seen by very poor liquidity of bitBTC in the past. Second downside is oracles can still collude to mess with price feeds, and while their influence might be limited via capped price changes per unit time and might compromise their continuous revenue stream from fees, the leverage benefits might outweight the losses. The use of continous proof of burn to peg withdrawals is superior method as it is simply a minor byproduct of "mining" for altcoins and doesn't depend on traders positions. At the moment I'm not aware of any market-pegged coins on trust minimized platforms or implemented in trust minimized way (e.g. premined mkr on premined eth = 2 sets of trusted third parties each of which with full control over the design). _______________________________________
Brief issues with current altchains options:
PoW: New PoW altcoins suffer high risk of attacks. Additional PoW chains require high energy and capital costs to create permissionless entry and trust minimized miners that are forever dependent on markets to hold them accountable. Using same algorithm or equipment as another chain or merge-mining puts you at a disadvantage by allowing some miners to attack and still cover sunk costs on another chain. Using a different algorithm/equipment requires building up the value of sunk costs to protect against attacks with significant energy and capital costs. Drive-chains also require miners to allow it by having to be sidechain aware and thus incur additional costs on them and validating nodes if the sidechain rewards are of value and importance.
PoS: PoS is permissioned (requires permission from internal party to use network or contribute to consensus on permitted scale), allows perpetual control without accountability to others, and incentivizes centralization of control over time. Without continuous source of sunk costs there's no reason to give up control. By having consensus entirely dependent on internal state network, unlike PoW but like private databases, cannot guarantee independent permissionless entry and thus cannot claim trust minimization. Has no built in distribution methods so depends on safe start (snapshot of trust minimized distributions or PoW period) followed by losing that on switch to PoS or starting off dependent on a single trusted party such as case in all significant pre-mines and ICO's.
Proof of Capacity: PoC is just shifting costs further to capital over PoW to achieve same guarantees.
PoW/PoS: Still require additional PoW chain creation. Strong dependence on PoS can render PoW irrelevant and thus inherit the worst properties of both protocols.
Tokens inherit all trust dependencies of parent blockchain and thus depend on the above.
Embedded consensus (counterparty, veriblock?, omni): Lacks mechanism for distribution, requires all tx data to be inside scarce Bitcoin block space so high cost to users instead of compensated miners. If you want to build a very expressive scripting language, might very hard & expensive to fit into Bitcoin tx vs CPoBB external content of unlimited size in a committed hash. Same as CPoBB is Bitcoin-aware so can respond to Bitcoin being sent but without source of Bitcoins like burning no way to do any trust minimized Bitcoin-pegs it can control fully.
Few extra notes from my talks with people:
fees must be high to be included in next block (and helps pay and bribe bitcoin miners), RBF use is encouraged to cancel late transactions
what if not enough burners, just passive nodes? you can burn smallest amount of bitcoin yourself when you have a transaction you want to go through
using commit hashes on bitcoin to lock altcoin state isn't new (e.g. kmd) but usually those rely on some federation or permissioned proof of stake mechanism with no real costs. this is combination of both.
this is not exactly like counterparty's embedded consensus as block data and transactions are outside Bitcoin, but consensus is derived with help of embedded on Bitcoin data.
deterministic randomness (e.g. via that block's hash) could be used to assign winning sidechain block weighted by amount burned to allow occasional blocks formed by others curbing success rate of censorship by highest burner
wants to transition away from using proof of burn via tunable proofs and native proof of work (whitepaper)
a dominant premine (trust maximized) relative to emission that defeats the purpose of distributing control over incentives (figure 3 in tokenpaper suggests premine still ~30%-70% by year 2050)
variable emission rate "adaptive mint and burn" makes supply unpredictable (and possibly gameable)
additional rewards that aren't trust minimized like "app mining" and "user incentives" possibly gameable with premine
election of a leader includes their own PoW to be elected even at start (5% cap), why lol?
blockstack also suggested use of randomness that depends on that block so Bitcoin miners that already spent energy mining that block can't just re-do it to get picked at no cost
if can burn bitcoins directly via op_return tx would help to use 1 less output and be provably prunable for utxo set (not sure if that's relayed as standard)
Main questions to you:
why not? (other than blocktime)
can this be done without an altcoin? (Not sure and don't think so w/o compromising unforgeable costliness and thus trust minimization. At least it's not using an altcoin that's clearly centralized.)
how to make it less detectable by Bitcoin miners? ( BMM could use some techniques described here: https://twitter.com/SomsenRuben/status/1210040270328254464 ) ( Perhaps since sidechain nodes receive proposed blocks independently and can figure out their hash, the commit message ( sidechain id + block commit + miner address) can be hashed one more time before its placed on Bitcoin, making miners unaware until after Bitcoin block is found that this is that sidechain's burn. Sidechain block producers would have to delay sidechain block propagation until after Bitcoin block is propagated, 10 minutes blocktime helps here. Hiding the fact that Bitcoin is burnt until after the fact is another possibly important matter. )
Should reward be split between all valid blocks or just winner gets all? (Blockstacks approach does not reward blocks marked by different from leader chaintip. That seems dangerous since sidechain tx sorting would be difficult to match and could take significant time to be compensated for perfectly valid work and coins burned. It doesn't seem as necessary in burning since we're not expending costs based on only one previous block version, the costs are independent of block assembly. Tradeoff is between making it easier for independent "mining" of sidechain and making it easier to validate for full nodes on sidechain)
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